Food Safety on the Farm: Good Agricultural Practices and Good Handling Practices: Manure and Municipal Biosolids

Fertilization Campaign

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) and Good Handling Practices (GHPs) encompass the general procedures growers, packers, and processors of fresh fruits and vegetables should follow to ensure the safety of their product. GAPs usually deal with pre-harvest practices (i.e., in the field), while GHPs tend to cover post-harvest practices, including packing and shipping. This 5-page entry in the Food Safety on the Farm series focuses on Good Agricultural Practices, including pathogen reduction and handling and application, to control potential hazards when working with manure and biosolids. This major revision was written by Jaysankar De, Christopher R. Pabst, Jessica Lepper, Renée M. Goodrich-Schneider, and Keith R. Schneider and published by the UF/IFAS Food Science and Human Nutrition Department.

Facts About Wildlife Diseases: Eastern Equine Encephalitis

The Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) disease in birds, humans, horses, and other animals in the eastern United States, including Florida, which is especially receptive to the virus because of its freshwater hardwood swamps and wetlands, which provide good niches for the mosquito vectors of the disease. This 5-page fact sheet written by Samantha Wisely and Karen Hood and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation describes the disease and includes strategies for limiting its spread.

How to Establish an Urban Agriculture Ordinance

Garden | Urban Farming | Organic

While the desire to implement urban agriculture projects is growing in popularity, there is little information available to help Extension agents and interested citizens fully understand how to implement urban agriculture in their community. This new 11-page document provides an overview of key information required to establish an urban agriculture ordinance. Case studies from urban agriculture initiatives in Florida provide real-world examples of the required activities, potential challenges, and beneficial partners for implementing these initiatives. Resources related to the case studies and additional urban agriculture resources can be found at the end of the document, so that readers can find further information specific to their interests and needs. Written by Candace A. Spencer, Catherine G. Campbell, Anna Prizzia, and Liz Felter, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.

Preventing Foodborne Illness: Yersiniosis

Yersinia enterocolitica bacteria growing on a Xylose Lysine Sodium Deoxycholate (XLD) agar plate.Yersiniosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia and is typically associated with the consumption of contaminated food or liquids. Yersiniosis is characterized by common symptoms of gastroenteritis such as abdominal pain and mild fever. The bacterium is prevalent in the environment, enabling it to contaminate water and food systems. Outbreaks of yersiniosis have been associated with improperly pasteurized milk, ready-to-eat salad mix, oysters, and more commonly with consumption of undercooked meals containing pork. Yersiniosis incidents have been reported frequently in Northern Europe, Scandinavia, and Japan, and rarely in the United States. However, the reported low incidence of Yersinia in the US food supply may be underestimated due to the long incubation time and misdiagnosis of patients with Y. enterocolitica infections, along with the inability to identify the source of infection and the fact that only serious cases are reported. This 4-page major revision, written by Christopher Pabst, Jaysankar De, Aswathy Sreedharan, Correy Jones, and Keith R. Schneider and published by the UF/IFAS Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, also describes long-term effects and complications of yersiniosis, members of the population most at risk, and prevention methods.

Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) application for control of palm phytoplasmas

oxytetracycline hydrochloride

Phytoplasma diseases of palms are a major threat to the Florida nursery and landscaping industries. Historically, lethal yellowing has killed millions of coconut palms throughout the Caribbean and has been causing decline of over 30 species of palm in Florida since it was introduced to the state in the first half of the 20th century. In 2006, lethal bronzing disease was discovered on the west coast of Florida near Tampa. Currently, the only two management options available for control of phytoplasmas is an aggressive sampling strategy followed by consistent tree removal and injections of oxytetracycline hydrochloride, or OTC. This 2-page fact sheet written by Brian W. Bahder and Ericka E. Helmick and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department seeks to provide a source of information and instruction on the injection of OTC into palm trunks.

Evolution, culture, and care for Betta splendens

male betta in a small aquarium; photo by Sandy Moore

The commercial betta, or Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), is one of a group of fishes that live in fresh water in Africa and southern Asia. Today’s commercial bettas are selected for bright colors as well as elaborate fins because the ornamental hobby is the main market for this species. This 5-page fact sheet written by Craig Watson, Matthew DiMaggio, Jeffrey Hill, Quenton Tuckett, and Roy Yanong and published by School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences explains how to grow and care for these beautiful and fascinating fishes.

Facility Registration and Initial Regulatory Compliance Activities for Acidified Food and Low-Acid Canned Food Processors in Florida

Canned food. Fruits and vegetables, cans, mason jars, bottles. July 2010 IFAS Extension Calendar image. UF/IFAS Photo by Tom Wright.

Food businesses are subject to a wide range of regulatory requirements. Food entrepreneurs who want to produce and sell acidified foods or low-acid canned foods must abide by specific FDA regulations. This new 3-page document intends to clarify the initial steps food entrepreneurs must implement to comply with these regulations. This factsheet is one in a Food Entrepreneurship in Florida series, which assists beginning and established food entrepreneurs by providing them information on topics highly relevant to starting and running a food business: regulations, safety, labeling, processing, and marketing. Written by Matthew Krug and Soohyoun Ahn, and published by the UF/IFAS Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, February 2019.

Florida 4-H Secretary Record Book

Florida 4-H Secretary Record Book

The Florida 4-H Secretary record book will provide the club secretary with an official outline for tracking all club records. This 30-page book serves as a guide and should be completed annually by the 4-H club secretary. This major revision was written by Sarah Thomas Hensley and Stacey Ellison and published by the UF/IFAS Extension 4-H Youth Development program.

Weed Management in Rice

Flooded rice in the Everglades Agricultural Area.

Successful weed control is essential for economical rice production in Florida. This 6-page document discusses field sanitation and tillage, water management, and herbicides. Written by D. C. Odero and M. VanWeelden, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised August 2018.

The Consequence of Postpartum Uterine Disease on Dairy Cow Fertility

Dairy cows being milked in a milking parlour at the Shenandoah Dairy Farm. Milking, milk production.

This new 4-page document discusses the reproductive consequences of uterine disease in the dairy cow, potential mechanisms, and current treatments. Written by Rachel L. Piersanti and John J. Bromfield, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, March 2019.

Biology and Management of Nostoc (Cyanobacteria) in Nurseries and Greenhouses

Image of Nostoc macroscopic colony commonly found in the field on sandy and limestone ground.

This new 4-page document provides an overview of the biology and ecology of Nostoc-like cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in humid soils and discusses cultural, physical, and chemical methods to manage this weed in nursery environments. Written by H. Dail Laughinghouse IV, David E. Berthold, Chris Marble, and Debalina Saha, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, February 2019.

A Homeowner’s Guide to the Living Shoreline Permit Exemption Part 2: United States Army Corps of Engineers

oysters in mesh bags for living shoreline Laura Tiu, Florida Sea Grant

Living shorelines are coastal shoreline stabilization interventions that rely on natural elements such as native vegetation and oyster reefs to protect property. The US Army Corps of Engineers, among other entities, regulates the placement of living shorelines through a permitting process to ensure project activities do not conflict with the public interest. In this 9-page guide, authors Savanna Barry, Sara Martin, and Eric Sparks provide you with example text for each application section that you can adapt to your needs to assist you in filling out the permit application. Published by the UF/IFAS Florida Sea Grant College Program.

Living with a College Roommate in a Residence Hall

Students walking and talking on campus. Photo taken 01-26-18

As you enter college, you may wonder what it will be like to live in a residence hall and share a space with a roommate. A good roommate relationship can help you navigate many of the changes you are about to make. This new 2-page document discusses six steps you can take to help establish a good relationship between you and your roommate. Written by Suzanna Smith and Heather Wallace, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, February 2019.

How Red Tides Impact Manatees

One of Florida's keystone species, manatees help to maintain healthy coastal and riverine ecosystems and are economically important for many coastal communities. Effective protection measures implemented in Florida for many years allowed state and federal regulators to reclassify manatees from Endangered to Threatened in 2017. Red tides, especially persistent blooms during winter months, can be one of the largest killers of Florida manatees, and they may become endangered again if they are subjected to increased mortality and stress. Understanding how red tides affect manatees and how can you help is critical. This 5-page fact sheet written by Brittany Hall-Scharf and Armando Ubeda and published by the UF/IFAS Florida Sea Grant College Program will explain what red tides are, how they harm manatees, and what you can do to help.

Biology and Management of Yellow (Cyperus escuelentus) and Purple Nutsedge (C. rotundus) in Ornamental Crop Production and Landscapes

Yellow nutsedge inflorescence (left) and purple nutsedge inflorescence (right).

This new six-page document provides insight on characteristics and management techniques for both yellow and purple nutsedge, prevalent and persistent weeds in Florida. Written by Debalina Saha, Chris Marble, Nathan Boyd, and Shawn Steed and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department, March 2019.

Formation of Citrus Canker Lesions

Formation of Citrus Canker Lesions

Citrus canker is a non-systemic bacterial disease that affects citrus trees in both the citrus nursery and in commercial plantings. This poster is designed to assist citrus nursery workers in the identification of citrus canker. This one-page document was written by Jamie Burrow, Megan Dewdney, Ajia Paolillo, and Tim Riley and published by the UF/IFAS Plant Pathology Department.

Feeding Your Baby

Woman and child driving in a car.

Feeding your baby is one of the first things you do as a parent. It is also one of the ways that you develop a relationship with this new family member. When feeding goes well, everyone in the family is happier. This 3-page publication can help you develop a close feeding relationship with your baby. The skills you learn will also help you and your child avoid conflicts over food during the toddler and preschool years. Written by Linda B. Bobroff and Nicole Owens Duffy, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, revised March 2019.

Key Plant, Key Pests: Holly (Ilex sp.)

Hollies are known for their woody branches and vibrant red berries

This series of Key Plant, Key Pests publications are designed for Florida gardeners, horticulturalists, and landscape professionals to help identify common pests associated with common Florida flora. This publication, the eighth in the Key Plant, Key Pests series, helps identify the most common pests found on Holly (Ilex sp.). This publication provides information and general management recommendations for Florida wax scale, tea scale, Cylindrocladium leaf spot, dieback, Sphaeropsis gall, root knot nematodes, and magnesium deficiency. This five-page document was written by Juanita Popenoe, Caroline R. Warwick, Jacqueline Bourdon, and Liz Felter and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Environmental Horticulture.

Clients’ Experience with FCES: Widespread Satisfaction Tempered with Suggestions for Improvement

Use of Extension Services

The Florida Cooperative Extension Service (FCES) provides a variety of information to clients throughout the state. In order to determine the extent of client satisfaction, the FCES conducts an annual survey. The survey was sent to a sample of clients who have received educational information between March and July, 2017. A total of 1,202 participants responded, and 94.9% of Extension clients reported that they were satisfied or very satisfied with the overall services provided. Many Extension clients also shared suggestions for improving services, including improved communication, increased advertising, and increased availability for some classes. In this five-page document from the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural Education and Communication, Glenn D. Israel and Tiffany Henderson summarize the results of the survey and provide recommendations for how to improve Extension’s services.

Educating Your State Legislators

Interior view of the Senate chamber on the final day of the 2008 session.

Both legislators and citizens play important roles in ensuring a fair and effective state government. Florida State Representatives and Senators have a responsibility to represent the will of their constituents. Similarly, citizens have a responsibility to educate their Representatives and Senators on how issues may impact them and other local citizens. This three-page guide walks you through the process of making your voice heard and provides some helpful tips to make your message to your legislator stand out. Written by Stacey Ellison and published by the UF/IFAS 4-H Youth Development Department, March 2019.