Antibiotics in Crop Production

Basket of fresh tomatoes and bell peppers. UF/IFAS file photo.

This new 5-page article presents an overview of the use of antibiotics in agriculture. Several of the most severe bacterial diseases of tree fruit and other crops are discussed and their integrated management, which includes the use of antibiotics, is described. Antibiotic use for plant disease protection is compared with the use of antibiotics in livestock production, and their future and limitations in plant production are discussed. Written by Leigh Archer, Ute Albrecht, and Pamela Roberts, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1366

Cultivo de ciruelas en Florida

A close-up of a plum on a tree.

Las ciruelas podrían ser un cultivo potencial para los productores y propietarios de viviendas en Florida y otras áreas de invierno templado en toda la costa del Golfo, pero muchas variedades de ciruelas de la costa oeste no funcionarán de manera consistente en Florida para producir fruta. Sin embargo, el programa de mejoramiento de fruta de hueso de la Universidad de Florida ha desarrollado cultivares que mejoran el potencial para el cultivo de ciruelas en Florida y otras áreas de invierno templado que tienen alta presión de enfermedades. Estos cultivares se recomiendan para probar en Florida. Los nombres de todos los cultivares de ciruela de la Universidad de Florida comienzan con el prefijo 'Gulf'. Estos cultivares son ciruelas de tipo japonés (Prunus salicina Lindl.) y tienen resistencia al escaldado de hojas de ciruela (Xylella fastidiosa) y a la bacteriosis o cribado (Xanthomonas campestris). El tamaño del fruto es satisfactorio (aproximadamente 1½ a 2 pulgadas de diámetro) con buena calidad del fruto. Maduran a principios o finales de mayo, aproximadamente dos semanas antes de que las ciruelas de otras áreas lleguen al Mercado.
This new 14-page fact sheet is the Spanish translation of HS895/HS250, Growing Plums in Florida, written by A. Sarkhosh, M. Olmstead, E. P. Miller, P. C. Andersen, and J. G. Williamson, translated by Tatiana Sanchez, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1364

Using Supplemental Lighting to Control Flowering of Hops in Florida

The UF/IFAS GCREC research hop yard in Balm, FL at night. Credits: Shinsuke Agehara, UF/IFAS

Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are an emerging crop in Florida. Florida’s craft beer industry has experienced significant growth over the last 10 years, with 285 breweries producing 42.6 million gallons of beer and generating an economic impact of $3.6 billion in 2018. To respond to their strong demand for locally grown hops, an interdisciplinary hops research team is currently studying optimum crop management practices at the UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (UF/IFAS GCREC). In Florida, the major yield-limiting factor is premature flowering induced by inadequate day length. This new 4-page article, written by Shinsuke Agehara and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, provides guidelines for supplemental lighting to control flowering of hops in Florida.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1365

Calendar for Southern Highbush Blueberry Management in Florida

FL06-556 blueberry variety. UF/IFAS photo by Tyler Jones.

Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) are commercially grown throughout Florida in both deciduous and evergreen systems. This calendar addresses general management requirements on a monthly basis for conventional (nonorganic) systems and should be used in coordination with other UF/IFAS EDIS publications. This new 7-page article, published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, was written by Douglas A. Phillips, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Philip F. Harmon, Oscar E. Liburd, and Peter J. Dittmar.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1363

Evergreen Production System for Southern Highbush Blueberries in Florida

Kestrel blueberries. Credit: Douglas A. Phillips, UF/IFAS

In central and south-central Florida, many southern highbush blueberries (SHB) are grown in an evergreen system, in which the plants do not go dormant, and are managed to retain their leaves from the previous year through harvest the following spring to support early flowering and fruit set. The evergreen system has also been used under tunnels in north-central Florida. This new 3-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, written by Douglas A. Phillips, Jeffrey G. Williamson, and Patricio R. Munoz, provides an overview of the evergreen production system for SHB in Florida.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1362

Recommendations for Control and Mitigation of Laurel Wilt and Ambrosia Beetle Vectors in Commercial Avocado Groves in Florida

Avocado. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

The lethal laurel wilt epidemic affecting avocado trees in Florida is caused by a fungal pathogen-ambrosia beetle complex (LW-AB). The death of over 120,000 commercial avocado trees in Florida may be attributed to LW-AB. Recommendations for control and mitigation of this epidemic are needed to guide commercial producers in their decision-making process. This new 8-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department outlines the LW-AB epidemic, provides information on the pathogen and ambrosia beetle vectors, provides a brief outline of current research findings, and offers recommendations for the control and mitigation of LW-AB. Written by Jonathan H. Crane, Daniel Carrillo, Edward A. Evans, Romina Gazis, Bruce Schaffer, Fredy Ballen, and Jeff Wasielewski.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1360

El higo

Color de la cáscara de la fruta entre diferentes variedades de higo. Créditos: Ali Sarkhosh, UF/IFAS

El higo (Ficus carica L; familia Moracea) se originó en los trópicos del Viejo Mundo: Asia Menor y la Región Mediterránea. En el Mediterráneo, el higo se ha cultivado desde el año 5,000 a.C. Muchos cultivares de higos fueron importados del Viejo Mundo en los últimos 50 años. Actualmente, sin embargo, no hay programas de mejoramiento de higos en los Estados Unidos, y de entre al menos 60-100 cultivares de higos nombrados, relativamente pocos se cultivan en el sureste de los Estados Unidos.

This is the Spanish version of HS27, The Fig. (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg214). Written by Ali Sarkhosh and Peter C. Andersen, translated by Luis Jonathan Clavijo Herrera, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg459

Fertigation via Center Pivot Irrigation for Commercial Potato Production in Florida

Red potatoes. Vegetables, food, nutrition. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones

Potatoes are an important crop in the United States, and Florida is ranked the 7th producer nationwide for potato production. In Florida, potatoes are mainly planted on sandy soils with low nutrient- and water-holding capacities. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient in these soils. Adopting efficient fertilization methods such as fertigation is imperative for minimizing leaching and improving use efficiency of nitrogen. This new 12-page article provides step-by-step guidelines for fertigation practices for commercial potato production. Written by Xiangju Fu, Guodong Liu, Lincoln Zotarelli, Steven Sargent, Kati Migliaccio, and Yuncong Li, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1361

Pruning Southern Highbush Blueberry in Florida

'Farthing' blueberry plants previously trained to a narrow crown with cartons.

Pruning is an essential part of blueberry production and is used to help establish new plantings; promote postharvest growth of new foliage and fruiting wood; balance vegetative and reproductive growth; reduce disease and certain insect pressure; assist in harvesting efficiency; and promote new cane growth and plant longevity. This new 3-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department is a discussion of pruning practices on southern highbush blueberry in Florida. Written by Douglas A. Phillips and Jeffrey G. Williamson.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1359

Recommendations for the Detection and Mitigation of Laurel Wilt Disease in Avocado and Related Tree Species in the Home Landscape

Avocados growing on a tree. Avocado fruit. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

Avocado trees are a popular choice for homeowners in Florida, with over 600,000 growing in Florida home landscapes. However, avocado trees as well as others in the Lauraceae family are susceptible to laurel wilt disease, which can kill a tree in as few as three weeks. This new 7-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department provides home owners recommendations for identifying and mitigating laurel wilt disease in the home landscape. Written by Jonathan H. Crane, Jeff Wasielewski, Daniel Carrillo, Romina Gazis, Bruce Schaffer, Fredy Ballen, and Edwards Evans.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1358

Lettuce Cultivars Suitable for Use on Organic Soils in Southern Florida

Lettuce. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

Lettuce as a commercial crop is planted mainly in organic soils (“muck”) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) in south Florida. This updated 6-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department presents a summary of previous cultivar releases by UF/IFAS as well as a description of cultivars currently planted in the EAA. Written by German Sandoya and Huangjun Lu.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1225

Japanese Persimmon Varieties in Florida

'Matsumoto Wase Fuyu' persimmon cultivar

Japanese persimmons were first grown in Florida in the 1870s, but as of 2017, most US plantings are on a small scale; however, even as the overall acreage has decreased, the number of farms in Florida growing the fruit increased from 2012 to 2017. Trees grow and fruit best in central and northern Florida and can produce high yields of good-quality fruit. With an estimated population of more than 21 million, a diverse cultural base, and large cities close to production zones, Florida is primed for a larger persimmon industry. This 11-page revision provides growers with a primer on persimmon characteristics, marketing, and cultivars. Written by Ali Sarkhosh, Peter C. Andersen, and Dustin M. Huff, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg242

Citrus Leaf Sampling Procedures for Nutrient Analysis

Healthy-looking, 4-to-6-month-old leaves from nonbearing twigs

To maintain balanced nutrients for optimal tree growth, citrus growers need to assess trees’ nutritional requirements. These assessments help prevent any nutrient deficiency or toxicity from compromising tree health and yield or reducing revenue. This new illustrated two-page instructional sheet gives a basic procedure for the citrus leaf sampling process, as well as additional suggestions for HLB-affected trees. Written by Tripti Vashisth, Jamie D. Burrow, Davie Kadyampakeni, and Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1355

Nutrition and Fertilization Practices for Southern Highbush Blueberry in Florida

FL06-556 blueberry variety. Photo taken 04-24-18

Research and field experience have demonstrated that fertilization is necessary to achieve proper growth and high yields in cultivated production of blueberries. This new 7-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department provides guidance and management suggestions to Florida growers of southern highbush blueberry (SHB) for monitoring, supplying, and maintaining proper plant nutrition in commercial production operations. Written by Doug Phillips and Jeffrey G. Williamson.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1356

Peach Brown Rot

Ripe peach on a peach tree

Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp., is one of the most economically harmful fungal diseases for peach and other stone fruit growers worldwide. Under the right conditions, the entire tree’s crop can be completely rotted. Fruit susceptibility fluctuates with the various stages of development; mature fruits are highly susceptible to disease, and fruit infection has the greatest impact on production. This new 7-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department describes the disease cycle, symptoms, and management options available for brown rot in Florida peaches. Written by Ali Sarkhosh, Shirin Shahkoomahally, Logan Marie Richmond-Cosie, and Philip Harmon.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1357

Hop Yard Establishment and Trellis Construction in Florida

Hop plants illuminated by LED lamps at night

Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are an essential ingredient in brewing, adding bitterness and flavor to beer. Driven by the recent craft beer movement, hop production is expanding into nontraditional hop-producing states. In Florida, while commercial hop production is almost nonexistent, the number of craft breweries in Florida increased from 45 in 2011 to 285 in 2018, and the economic impact of Florida’s craft beer industry exceeds $3 billion. This new 7-page article, written by Shinsuke Agehara, Aleyda Acosta-Rangel, Zhanao Deng, Jack Rechcigl, and Simon Bollin and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, provides guidelines and considerations for building a hop yard in Florida, using the UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center’s research hop yard as a model.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1354

Simple Imaging Techniques for Plant Growth Assessment

Overhead canopy images of various crops converted to binary images using ImageJ for canopy cover measurements.

Quantification of plant phenotypic traits, such as height, width, stem diameter, and leaf area, is often performed manually in the field; however, these measurements can be performed more quickly and precisely through simple imaging techniques using an image processing program. This new 5-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, written by Shinsuke Agehara, describes simple imaging techniques for plant growth assessment using the public domain program ImageJ.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1353

Choosing the Right Blackberry Cultivar in Subtropical Florida

Blackberry bramble

Blackberry (Rubus spp.) is a deciduous berry crop and the fourth most economically important berry crop in the United States. Driven by the growing demand for blackberries, production recently expanded to the southeastern United States. In Florida, however, commercial blackberry production is limited primarily to small commercial U-pick operations. The main challenges include insufficient chill hours and poor fruit quality associated with the subtropical climate. This new 6-page article, a publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, will discuss important cultivar selection criteria and recommended blackberry cultivars in subtropical Florida. Written by Shinsuke Agehara, Syuan-You Lin, and Zhanao Deng.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1352

Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide, 4th Edition

Citrus fruit on trees in the campus orange groves. Photo taken 06-22-18.

This updated 4th edition of the Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide (FLCRSG) is a revision of the 2016 publication. The guide is a convenient, easy-to-use reference to 21 characteristics of 49 rootstocks. Of those, 12 are time-honored commercial rootstocks (highlighted in blue), which are the most reliably characterized. The next 13 rootstocks are minor commercial ones (highlighted in green) that are less frequently used today in Florida but may have been prominent at one time. The third group consists of the most recently released 24 rootstocks (highlighted in yellow) for which there is limited commercial experience. The new addition includes three new USDA rootstocks and updates information on a few traits. Written by William S. Castle, Kim D. Bowman, Jude W. Grosser, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Stephen H. Futch, and Steve Rogers, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1260

Culture de la vanille dans le sud de la Floride

Flowers of V. planifolia (top left), V. pompona (top center), V. phaeantha (top right), V. mexicana (bottom left), V dilloniana (bottom center), and V. barbellata (bottom right) growing in southern Florida.

L’extrait de vanille est populaire dans le monde entier comme ingrédient dans la crème glacée et divers autres desserts. La source botanique de l’extrait de vanille provient principalement des gousses durcies (préparées) de l’espèce Vanilla planifolia. Les États-Unis sont les plus grands importateurs mondiaux de gousses de vanille, mais la production nationale est très faible. Toutefois, le sud de la Floride a un potentiel de production favorable á la culture de la vanille. Ce document contient des informations utiles aux producteurs intéressés par l’établissement d’une vanillerie.
This is the French version of HS1348, Vanilla Cultivation in Southern Florida. This new 9-page publication was written by Alan Chambers, Pamela Moon, Vovener de Verlands Edmond, and Elias Bassil, translated by Francesca Carla Erié, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1351