The Economics of Planting New Citrus Groves in Florida in the Era of HLB

Figure 5. Color inversion and oblong fruit shape caused by HLB infection. Credits: Megan M. Dewdney, UF/IFAS CREC
Citrus greening, or huanglongbing (HLB), is a bacterial disease that affects citrus trees’ vascular systems, limiting nutrient uptake. As trees become increasingly affected by the disease, they suffer premature fruit drop, the fruit harvested is smaller and misshapen, and the juice quality is compromised, all resulting in lower yield. To this date there is no cure or successful management strategy to deal with HLB. This 8-page fact sheet written by Ariel Singerman, Marina Burani-Arouca, and Stephen H. Futch and published by the UF/IFAS Food and Resource Economics Department summarizes the results of an analysis of three tree densities under different production and market conditions to determine which density is most profitable.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe1050

Citrus Nutrition Management Practices


A new two-page fact sheet has been published by the Horticultural Sciences Department and the UF/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center about citrus nutrition management practices. It was written by J.D. Burrow, T. Vashisth, M. Zekri, S.H. Futch, and A. Schumann.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1292

Harvesting Charges for Florida Citrus: Picking, Roadsiding, and Hauling, 2015/16

freshpicked oranges in foreground of packing facility

A survey of Florida citrus harvesters was conducted in July 2016 to collect data and estimate the harvesting charges to Florida citrus growers during the 2015/16 season. This 5-page fact sheet written by Ariel Singermam, Marina Burani-Arouca, and Stephen H. Futch and published by the UF Department of Food and Resource Economics presents the results of the survey, summarizing the harvesting charges for citrus during the 2015/16 season and documenting the changes in harvesting costs as the impact of HLB increases across the state. The estimates presented provide the basis for computing on-tree prices from delivered-in prices, thus allowing the computation of the change in citrus growers’ economic returns as the industry adapts to remain profitable.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe1005

Planting and Annual Cultural Maintenance Costs for Reset-Replacement Trees in a Florida Citrus Grove in 2016

edis pic

Replacement of diseased, unproductive or dead trees is an important part of the cultural program for citrus groves. This five-page fact sheet uses prices and productivity rates collected through a telephone survey in May 2016 to analyze the different preferred management and reset practices. Written by Marina Burani-Arouca, Stephen H. Futch, and Ariel Singerman and published by the Food and Resource Economics Department.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe995

Suggested Weed Control Programs for Citrus

Orange grove.
Weed management is an important component of citrus production. The selection and implementation of a weed management program can lead to both economic and environmental returns. This three-page fact sheet details how to manage weeds in both young and mature groves, the differences in weed control programs between interior areas and coastal or flatwoods areas, how to control weeds after a freeze, and common ways that herbicides are misused. Written by Stephen H. Futch and Brent Sellers, and published by the Horticultural Sciences Department.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ch084

Freeze Damage Symptoms and Recovery for Citrus

Figure 6. Fruit drop in citrus after a severe winter freeze. Credits: Mongi Zekri, UF/IFAS
Citrus trees are evergreen, never become fully dormant, and cannot withstand temperatures as low as those tolerated by deciduous trees. But citrus trees can become preconditioned or acclimated to cool air temperatures that occur in late fall and winter. One of the best ways to lessen cold injury and to hasten recovery from cold damage is to maintain healthy trees. This five-page fact sheet discusses the symptoms of freeze damage and ways to help recover trees that have been damaged. Written by Mongi Zekri, Chris Oswalt, Steve Futch, Gary England, Camilly McAvoy, Laurie Hurner, and Parker Platts, and published by the Horticultural Sciences Department.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1250

Citrus Reset Management

oranges on the tree with orchard in background
Replacement of dead and diseased trees in Florida citrus groves has always been an important part of citrus production. Today, tree replacement is more important than ever since overhead and production costs are escalating and a full stand of productive trees is essential to maximize production and profits. In more recent times, Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, has accelerated tree loss rates as well as the ability for growers to bring young citrus trees into production. This five-page fact sheet discusses a wide range of techniques for providing young tree care. Many of these should prove useful to Florida citrus growers confronted with the problem of managing resets. Written by Stephen H. Futch, and published by the Horticultural Sciences Department.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ch025

Maximizing Weed Control in Florida Citrus

oranges on the tree with orchard in background
With Florida citrus growers and production managers being “squeezed” between rising production prices and declining yields from citrus greening, there’s more call than ever to reduce citrus production costs. Controlling weeds is a major expense, amounting to 11% of the total $2,278 annual production cost per acre for the 2014–2015 season. This 3-page fact sheet teaches the six essential components of an effective weed-management program to help maintain the profitability of this vital Florida industry. Written by Stephen H. Futch and Brent Sellers and published by the Horticultural Sciences Department. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs237

Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide, 3rd Edition

Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide, 3rd Edition

Information about citrus rootstocks has become an important part of understanding and managing citrus greening (Huanglongbing or HLB). This selection guide covers 20 characteristics of 45 citrus rootstocks and explains its methodology in detail. This 3-page fact sheet was written by William S. Castle, Kim D. Bowman, Jude W. Grosser, Stephen H. Futch, and James H. Graham and published by the UF Department of Horticultural Sciences, May 2015.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1260

Citrus Mechanical Harvesting Systems–Continuous Canopy Shakers

Figure 2. CSC system (Photo courtesy of Paul Meador, Everglades Harvesting, LaBelle, FL)Mechanization has been the hallmark of American agriculture. Nearly 100 percent of the agronomic crops grown in the United States are plowed, planted, and harvested with mechanical equipment. Mechanical harvesting equipment for sweet oranges has been studied extensively since the 1970s and during the 2005/06 harvest season, trunk and canopy shakers harvested more than 36,000 acres of Florida citrus. Mechanically harvested citrus acreage, however, has decreased significantly since 2005. During the 2012/13 season, less than 9,000 acres were mechanically harvested (FDOC 2013). Nevertheless, development and adoption of mechanical harvesting technology is important to the long-term economic sustainability of the Florida orange juice processing industry. This 5-page fact sheet describing canopy shakerswas written by F.M. Roka, R.J. Ehsani, S.H. Futch, and B.R. Hyman, and published by the UF Department of Food and Resource Economics, August 2014.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe951

Citrus Mechanical Harvesting Systems–Trunk Shakers

Figure 2. Coe-Collier shaker unit (Photo courtesy of Barbara Hyman, UF/IFAS)While citrus growers are rightfully concerned about restoring the health of their HLB-infected trees, more study and consideration should be given to mechanical harvesting. The costs to grow and harvest citrus have been escalating significantly since 2006, and the cost savings potential from mechanical harvesting technologies can help Florida growers remain economically viable. This 4-page fact sheet was written by F.M. Roka, R.J. Ehsani, S.H. Futch, and B.R. Hyman, and published by the UF Department of Food and Resource Economics, August 2014.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe950

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Reference Guide for Low-Volume Ground Citrus Applicators (CH203)

wearing goggles with a half-face respiratorThis 2-page fact sheet provides a table describing personal protective equipment requirements for several products used in citrus production. Written by S.H. Futch, L.L. Stelinski, M.E. Rogers, and J.D. Yates, and published by the UF Department of Horticultural Sciences, July 2011.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ch203

AE248 Fertilizer Application Best Management Practices for Citrus Grove Workers

Revised! AE248, a 12-page fact sheet by Brian Boman, Darren Cole, Steve Futch, Ward Gunter, Jack Hebb, and Chris Wilson, instructs citrus grove workers in fertilizer application best management practices. Includes references and quizzes throughout. Published by the UF Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, March 2009.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae248

CH203 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Quick Reference Guide for Low Volume Citrus Applications

CH203, a one-page fact sheet by S.H. Futch, L.L. Stelinski, M.E. Rogers and J.D. Yates, provides a table describing personal protective equipment requirements for several products used in citrus production. Published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, September 2009.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ch203

CH201 Scouting for Citrus Greening: Scouting Today to Protect Future Profits

CH201, a 2-page trifold brochure by J.D. Yates, S.H. Futch, and T.M. Spann, highlights the purpose of scouting, frequency, methods, grove conditions, tagging suspect trees, scout responsibilities, safety concerns, diagnostics, and what to scout for. Includes contact information for UF/IFAS Extension citrus experts. Published by the UF Department of Horticultural Sciences, August 2008.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CH201

AE246 Herbicide Application Best Management Practices for Citrus Grove Workers

Revised! AE246, a 13-page illustrated fact sheet by Brian Boman, Darren Cole, Steve Futch, Ward Gunter, Jack Hebb, Chris Wilson, is part of the Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Citrus Grove Workers series. It covers personal protective equipment, tractor and herbicider preventive maintenance, mixing and loading, posting, important stepts to take before application, herbicide application, equipment clean up, and spill containment. Includes three comprehension quizzes and references. Published by the UF Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, March 2009.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE246

ABE367/AE243 Understanding the Pesticide Label for Citrus Grove Workers

Revised! ABE-367, a 5-page fact sheet by Brian Boman, Darren Cole, Steve Futch, Ward Gunter, Jack Hebb, Chris Wilson, is part of the Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Citrus Grove Workers series. It emphasizes the importance of reading pesticide labels, the risks of misusing pesticides, and what is on the label. Includes a 10 question quiz and references. Published by the UF Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, March 2009.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE243

HS1147/CH200 Scouting for Citrus Greening

HS-1147, a 6-page illustrated fact sheet by Jamie D. Yates, Stephen H. Futch, and Timothy M. Spann, describes when to scout; different methods of scouting and their applications; symptoms of greening and how to distinguish these symptoms from those of other diseases/disorders; and what to do when a
greening-infected tree is identified. Includes references. Published by the UF Department of Horticultural Sciences, August 2008.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CH200