Citrus Pest Quick Guide: Lebbeck Mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)

A close-up photo of a female lebeck mealybug looking like a miniscule white fluffy bedroom slipper on the underside of a green leaf.

A one-page quick guide written by Lauren M. Diepenbrock and Jamie D. Burrow and published by the Entomology and Nematology Department presents the life cycle of the lebbeck mealybug and provides several photos of the pest and the damage it causes to assist in identification.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1280

Yellow-Legged Hornet (suggested common name), Vespa velutina (Lepeletier 1836) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

Close-up photo of Vespa velutina clinging to a flower and feeding on nectar.

The yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina (Lepeletier), is a pest of concern outside of its native range. Vespa velutina is native to Southeast Asia and has invaded several regions in Europe, first appearing in France in 2004. As a generalist predator, they are a pest of honey bees and a major concern to many beekeepers. Vespa velutina has not been intercepted in North America, but it is believed to have high invasion potential. This 5-page fact sheet written by Krystal Ashman, Oliver Keller, and Cameron Jack and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department describes the hornet and explains its live cycle, biology, and some of its predatory strategies.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1282

Asian Giant Hornet, Vespa mandarinia Smith (1852) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

Close-up photo of a female Vesma Mandarina Smith, resting on a leaf, some tiny beads of water on its striking yellow head

Vespa mandarinia Smith, commonly called the Asian giant hornet, is the largest hornet in the world. Its size and distinctive markings make it easily distinguishable from other Asian hornet species. Not only is the wasp occasionally life-threatening to humans, it can decimate a number of insect colonies, most notably wild and farmed honey bees. Vespa mandarinia is native to Japan and occurs in several countries in Asia. The first Vespa madarinia hornet detected in the United States was in Washington State in 2019. This 5-page fact sheet written by Caitlin Gill, Cameron Jack, and Andrea Lucky and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department describes the hornet, its biology, its predatory strategies, and its medical significance. The fact sheet also provides some strategies for management of this dangerous and destructive hornet.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1281

Citrus Pest Quick Guide: Citrus Leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton)

closeup of an adult citrus leafminer on a leaf

A one-page quick guide written by Lauren M. Diepenbrock and Jamie D. Burrow and published by the Entomology and Nematology Department presents the life cycle of the citrus leafminer and provides several photos of the pest and the damage it causes to assist in identification.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1254

Sheep Bot Fly Oestrus ovis Linnaeus (1761) (Insecta: Diptera: Oestridae)

Photo of a sheep standing in a field.

The sheep bot fly, Oestrus ovis, is an obligate parasite found all over the world. It cannot complete its life cycle without parasitizing the nasal passages, frontal and maxillary cavities, and sinuses of sheep. Unlike other flies, females do not lay eggs, instead depositing droplets containing live larvae into the nostrils of sheep. This 4-page fact sheet written by Hannah A. Sholar and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department describes the life cycle of the pest and its veterinary significance and management.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1267

Termite Prevention and Control

A modest Florida ranch house with dogwoods, oak trees, and a largec cycad in the yard. House is completely covered by a green and orange striped tent with a warning signed pinned near the front walkway indicating fumigation..

This 16-page guide written by F. M. Oi, J. Davis, J. McConnell, J. Corbus, N. Nelson, and M. Atkinson and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department is intended to help homeowners make informed choices about the best termite protection for their homes.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1277

Recommendations for Control and Mitigation of Laurel Wilt and Ambrosia Beetle Vectors in Commercial Avocado Groves in Florida

Avocado. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

The lethal laurel wilt epidemic affecting avocado trees in Florida is caused by a fungal pathogen-ambrosia beetle complex (LW-AB). The death of over 120,000 commercial avocado trees in Florida may be attributed to LW-AB. Recommendations for control and mitigation of this epidemic are needed to guide commercial producers in their decision-making process. This new 8-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department outlines the LW-AB epidemic, provides information on the pathogen and ambrosia beetle vectors, provides a brief outline of current research findings, and offers recommendations for the control and mitigation of LW-AB. Written by Jonathan H. Crane, Daniel Carrillo, Edward A. Evans, Romina Gazis, Bruce Schaffer, Fredy Ballen, and Jeff Wasielewski.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1360

Non-Fumigant Nematicides Registered for Vegetable Crop Use

Non-fumigant nematicides are formulated as liquids or granules that are moved through the soil by water. This 4-page fact sheet written by T. T. Watson and J. A. Desaeger and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department is a major revision. It was first published in 1999 and most recently revised in Aoril 2019. The fact sheet lists and describes chemical and biological non-fumigant nematicides and provides some information about how these products work against nematode pests.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ng033

Bottling, Labeling, and Selling Honey in Florida

jars of honey

Honey producers in Florida have two main avenues for selling their hive products. Larger operations must be properly permitted by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and must bottle honey in a certified food establishment. Smaller-scale honey producers, however, may be exempt from needing these licenses, under Florida’s cottage food laws. This 4-page fact sheet written by Nancy Gentry, James D. Ellis, and Mary Bammer and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department discusses the laws regarding bottling, labeling, and selling honey in Florida both under and outside of the cottage food laws.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in918

Citrus Pest Quick Guide: Brown Soft Scale (Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus)

yellowish, oval brown soft scale on a citrus leaf

A one-page quick guide written by Lauren M. Diepenbrock and Jamie D. Burrow and published by the Entomology and Nematology Department presents the life cycle of brown soft scale and provides several photos of the pest and the damage it causes to assist in identification.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1252

How to quantify Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

A beekeeper in protective headgear checks a sticky board placed at the bottom of a honey bee hive to catch falling Varroa mites.

The Varroa destructor mite, a devastating pest of western honey bees, can threaten a honey bee colony’s survival if it is left uncontrolled. This 8-page fact sheet written by Cameron Jack, Nathan Sperry, Ashley N. Mortensen, and Jamie Ellis and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department explains how to monitor honey bee colonies to ensure that infestations of these destructive pests do not grow to dangerous levels.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1257

Citrus Pest Quick Guide: Diaprepes Root Weevil (Diaprepes abbreviates Linnaeus)

Diaprepes adult

A one-page quick guide written by Lauren M. Diepenbrock and Jamie D. Burrow and published by the Entomology and Nematology Department presents the life cycle of the Diaprepes root weevil and provides several photos of the pest and the damage it causes to assist in identification.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1249

Identification and Treatment of European Foulbrood in Honey Bee Colonies

Rope field test for the foulbroods, showing the larval or pupal

European foulbrood is a bacterial disease that affects Western honey bee larvae. It is a concern to beekeepers everywhere, though it is less serious than American foulbrood because it does not form spores, which means that it can be treated. This 7-page fact sheet written by Catherine M. Mueller, Cameron J. Jack, Ashley N. Mortensen, and Jamie Ellis and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department describes the disease and explains how to identify it to help beekeepers manage their colonies effectively and prevent the spread of both American and European foulbrood.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1272

Homeowner’s Guide to Selecting a Pest Control Service

A house fly perches on a soft drink can in this file photo by University of Florida entomologist Jerry Butler. The tiny white spots are flecks of powdered sugar from an earlier stroll on a jelly doughnut. In a new study, Butler and colleagues tested house flies captured outside restaurants and found they often carried harmful bacteria, including five species never associated with flies before.

While you can prevent pests from infesting your home, you might need the services of a professional to evict them if they have already moved in. The pest control industry in Florida is the largest in the nation. How do you choose the best pest control company for you? This 6-page fact sheet written by Faith Oi, James E. Davis, John M. Diaz, Sarah M. Ellis, Randall A. Cantrell, Nelly Nelson, and Judy Corbus and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department is full of practical tips and advice to help you choose a reliable and effective pest control service to help you kick out any uninvited crawlies.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1269

Elongate Hemlock Scale, an Exotic Scale Insect Pest of Christmas Trees and Other Conifers

Uncut Christmas trees at tree farm in Florida Marisol Amador

Elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), is an armored scale insect native to Japan and eastern Asia. This insect was first documented in the United States in 1908 in Queens, NY, and has since spread throughout most of the eastern United States. Though the primary hosts of the pest, hemlocks and firs, do not occur in Florida, there are concerns that elongate hemlock scale coming into the region on cut Christmas trees may disperse and establish on conifers that do occur in Florida. Of specific interest are two endangered species, Florida torreya (Torreya taxiflora) and Florida yew (Taxus floridana), which are native to a small region in northwestern Florida. Also of concern are Florida forestry species, Florida Christmas tree species, and species used for ornamental plantings in Florida. What can Florida do to protect its native conifers and farmed trees from the elongate hemlock scale? Find out in this 5-page fact sheet written by Adam Dale, Travis Birdsell, and Jill Sidebottom and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1253

Using Nucs in Beekeeping Operations

An apiary full of nucs for sale. Photo by Jamie Ellis.
This 9-page illustrated fact sheet by James D. Ellis discusses the merits of using nucleus colonies, or nucs, which are smaller versions of full-sized Langstroth hives. The publication explains how to create and manage nucs and how to use them to control swarming, strengthen production colonies, re-queen hives, hive swarms, produce queens to sell to other beekeepers, and in general strengthen and expand a beekeeping operation. Published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in869

Nematode Management in Potatoes (Irish or White)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest on potatoes in Florida. Root-knot, sting, and stubby-root nematodes are the primary problems. Sampling is an important component of confirming nematode problems in a field. Nematode management relies heavily on chemical control (nematicides), but crop rotation and soil culture are important considerations as well. This 12-page fact sheet about nematode management in potatoes was written by Zane J. Grabau and J.W. Noling and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ng029

Develop Your Own Florida Olive IPM Plan

A healthy Arbequina olive grove in Volusia County, Florida.

To remain in optimal health and produce optimal yield, olive trees need excellent nutrition, the right irrigation, and good care to help them stay healthy so that they can withstand injury from pests and diseases. This 10-page fact sheet written by Morgan Byron, Eleanor Phillips, and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department touches on some aspects of olive tree health that will help improve your trees' natural resistance to pests and pathogens. At the end of the guide is a monthly care and observation schedule to help you recognize when you should begin scouting for key pests and when important grove management decisions should be made.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1251

Managing Plant Pests with Soaps

Many available products commonly called “soap."
Home gardeners and professionals frequently discuss the use of soap products to control plant pests. Limited and conflicting information on this topic has resulted in confusion and misuse of products. It is important to recognize that all soaps are not equal in safety or efficacy in plant-pest management. This 5-page fact sheet written by Matthew A. Borden and Adam G. Dale and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department describes some of the different types of soaps and recommendations for proper, legal, and safe use of these products to manage pests.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1248