The Life of Lichen

Close-up photo of deer moss growing among dry leaves and grasses.

Lichen represent a fascinating combination of organisms working together to form some familiar and unfamiliar growths on a variety of substrates. This 6-page fact sheet written by James Stevenson, Lara B. Milligan, and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department defines and explains these organisms.

Sheep Bot Fly Oestrus ovis Linnaeus (1761) (Insecta: Diptera: Oestridae)

Photo of a sheep standing in a field.

The sheep bot fly, Oestrus ovis, is an obligate parasite found all over the world. It cannot complete its life cycle without parasitizing the nasal passages, frontal and maxillary cavities, and sinuses of sheep. Unlike other flies, females do not lay eggs, instead depositing droplets containing live larvae into the nostrils of sheep. This 4-page fact sheet written by Hannah A. Sholar and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department describes the life cycle of the pest and its veterinary significance and management.

Develop Your Own Florida Olive IPM Plan

A healthy Arbequina olive grove in Volusia County, Florida.

To remain in optimal health and produce optimal yield, olive trees need excellent nutrition, the right irrigation, and good care to help them stay healthy so that they can withstand injury from pests and diseases. This 10-page fact sheet written by Morgan Byron, Eleanor Phillips, and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department touches on some aspects of olive tree health that will help improve your trees' natural resistance to pests and pathogens. At the end of the guide is a monthly care and observation schedule to help you recognize when you should begin scouting for key pests and when important grove management decisions should be made.

Xylella fastidiosa and Olive Quick Decline: Symptoms and Identification of an Insect Vectored Pathogen

A healthy Arbequina olive grove in Volusia County, Florida.

A plant disease called Olive Quick Decline is killing olive trees throughout southern Italy. Although the pathogen that causes the disease is not known in Florida, it may spread to the state, which means that olive producers and homeowners with olives must watch for symptoms of the disease as well as for the leafhopper insects that spread it. This 3-page fact sheet written by Whitney Elmore and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman and published by the Department of Entomology and Nematology explains how to monitor for the disease and its insect vectors and offers advice and assistance for commercial and hobby olive growers.

Primary Screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Insecta: Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Cochliomyia hominivorax

In October of 2016, the United States Department of Agriculture confirmed that the primary screwworm, also called the New World screwworm, has returned to Florida. The fly was found infesting Key deer on Big Pine Key. Key deer are an endangered species found only on the Florida Keys, and unfortunately several have died from the 2016 screwworm infestations, but the screwworm is not only a problem for deer and other wildlife. The pest poses a serious threat to all warm-blooded animals, including livestock, pets, and people, and it cost the US livestock industry billions of dollars before it was finally eradicated decades ago. This four-page fact sheet provides more information about this dangerous pest and how to spot it, as well as what to do and whom to contact if you suspect an infestation in your livestock or pets or in a wild animal. Written by Phillip E. Kaufman, Samantha M. Wisely, and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman and published by the Entomology and Nematology Department.

If you suspect an infestation of screwworms in an animal, do not move the animal (to prevent spreading the infestation). Call 1-800-HELP-FLA (1-800-435-7352) inside Florida. Non-Florida residents should call (850) 410-3800.

Guide to Olive Tree Nutrition in Florida

A healthy Arbequina olive grove in Volusia County, Florida.A burgeoning olive industry already exists in the southeastern United States, but research and Extension information regarding olive fertilization recommendations in Florida is limited. While there are data and recommendations for olive from the University of California, the University of Georgia (UGA), and other institutions around the world, there are no data from which we can derive Florida-specific recommendations. This 6-page fact sheet uses many of the existing recommendations for mature, high-density, and traditional grove spacing as guidelines until data specific to Florida production are generated. It discusses leaf tissue sampling procedures, leaf tissue sufficiency ranges, nitrogen fertility, phosphorus and potassium fertility, boron, concerns for olive production in Florida, and other resources for olive production in the state. Written by Michael J. Mulvaney, Rao Mylavarapu, Peter C. Andersen, Mack Thetford, and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, and published by the UF Agronomy Department, May 2016.