Integrated Management of Non-Native Plants in Natural Areas of Florida

Air potato. Invasive yam species, perennial vine, poison plants. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

While natural areas are conservation lands that have been set aside for the purpose of preserving (or restoring) native plant and animal communities, they do require active management. One of the greatest management issues in natural areas is invasive plants. This 35-page publication provides land managers in Florida with current methods used to manage non-native plants. Written by Stephen F. Enloe, Ken Langeland, Jason Ferrell, Brent Sellers, and Greg MacDonald, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised July 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/wg209

Mycotoxins in Florida Pastures

Beef cattle feeding in pasture.

Beef cattle producers in Florida have expressed concerns about the potential presence of mycotoxins in summer perennial forages. In other regions of the US, mycotoxins in forage crops have caused productivity and economic losses. This 3-page fact sheet provides information about the current state of knowledge regarding mycotoxins in Florida perennial grass pastures. Written by Marcelo Wallau, Brittany Justesen, Ann Blount, Luiz Ferraretto, Glen Aiken, and Aaron Stam, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, August 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag422

Strip-Planting Rhizoma Peanut into Grazing Systems

Yoana Newman discusses forage grass at a small farms workshop.

Nitrogen (N) is one of the major off-farm inputs in livestock systems, either in the form of N fertilizer or purchased feed. Fortunately, you can reduce those expenses by growing your own nitrogen using forage legumes. Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) is a legume adapted to the Florida environment that grows well in mixtures with bahiagrass. This 4-page fact sheet discusses varieties, establishment, weed management, grazing management, and the cost-share program. Written by Jose Dubeux, Lynn Sollenberger, Joao Vendramini, Marcelo Wallau, Ann Blount, Liza Garcia-Jimenez, Erick Santos, and David Jaramillo, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, July 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag421

Specifically Regulated Pesticides in Florida-Bromacil

Pesticide testing.

Bromacil is a general use pesticide that is marketed in Florida under many names and is used on sites such as citrus, pineapple, and industrial areas. This 2-page document discusses the characteristics and use of bromacil. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, May 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi112

Frost Damage of Carinata Grown in the Southeastern US

More severe cold damage of carinata during early bolting. This level of damage is expected to reduce stands and yield. Note that aboveground tissue was severely affected, but neither the growing points nor roots died. This field generally grew back from the growing point, but could have resprouted at the crown if the damage was more severe. UF/IFAS West Florida Research and Education Center, Jay, FL.

Brassica carinata is an annual oilseed crop used for the commercial production of jet fuel. One of the challenges to commercialization of this crop in the southeastern United States has been frost damage. This 4-page fact sheet discusses symptomology and ways to minimize risk of frost damage to carinata. Written by Michael J. Mulvaney, Ramdeo Seepaul, Ian Small, David Wright, Silvana Paula-Moraes, Carl Crozier, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker, and Ramon Leon, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, May 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag420

Florida Crop/Pest Profile: Sugarcane

Sugarcane field in Belle Glade, Florida.

Sugarcane (Saccharum interspecific hybrids) is the main source of sugar in the world. It is grown in more than 90 countries in tropical and subtropical regions. Cultivation techniques and production challenges vary by location (Rott 2017; Rott 2018). This 19-page document discusses characteristics of the sugarcane crop and pests affecting its production in Florida, which is the largest producer of sugarcane in the United States. Written by P. Rott, D. C. Odero, J. M. Beuzelin, R. N. Raid, M. VanWeelden, S. Swanson, and M. Mossler, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised May 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi207

Brunswickgrass or Paspalum nicorae: A Weed Contaminant in Southern Pastures and Bahiagrass Seed Production Fields

Closely grazed bahiagrass pasture with patches of brunswickgrass in late September (toward the end of the growing season) in Levy County, FL.

Brunswickgrass (Paspalum nicorae Parodi) is becoming a problematic weed in summer perennial grass pastures in the Southeast. The plant is competitive with bahiagrass
and bermudagrass. Since it is less palatable, it can eventually dominate a perennial grass pasture. Brunswickgrass has become naturalized and has reportedly contaminated bahiagrass seed fields and pastures in the southeastern states, including some of the important counties for seed production in Florida, such as Gilchrist, Levy, Alachua, Citrus, and Sumter. This 4-page fact sheet provides an overview of brunswickgrass and discusses its appearance, variety/germplasm, and management. Written by Ann Blount, Marcelo Wallau, Brent Sellers, Dennis Hancock, Leanne Dillard, Jose Dubeux, Cheryl Mackowiak, Joao Vendramini, and Clay Cooper, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, April 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag408

Sugarcane Cultivar Descriptive Fact Sheet: CPCL 02-6848 and CPCL 05-1201

Rosa Muchovej, assistant professor with the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, takes notes on growth of sugarcane near Clewiston. While most sugarcane is now grown on the area's organic muck soils, Muchovej and other UF researchers are developing new management practices to grow cane on less desirable sandy soil, thereby minimizing the environmental impact of sugarcane farming on the Florida Everglades.

CPCL 02-6848 and CPCL 05-1201 are emerging sugarcane cultivars in Florida. Both cultivars were released commercially in 2012 and were quickly adopted by local sugarcane growers because of high yields and moderate to high resistance against major sugarcane diseases in Florida. This 4-page fact sheet provides basic information and yield and disease information to assist growers in management of these cultivars. Written by Hardev Sandhu and Wayne Davidson, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, March 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sc104

Efficacy of Herbicide Active Ingredients Against Aquatic Weeds

Hydrilla in a lake

Weed control is often a critical component of aquatic vegetation management in Florida waters. While physical, mechanical, and biological controls are utilized where they are feasible, herbicides are the primary tool used to control many troublesome species. This document answers some common questions and provides efficacy information for all herbicide active ingredients labeled for aquatic use in Florida. Written by S. F. Enloe, M. D. Netherland, W. Haller, and K. Langeland, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised February 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag262

Pesticide Injection and Drenching

Drenching and injection are two pesticide application methods that are particularly effective in controlling some of the most troublesome insect pests of ornamental landscape trees. This 4-page document describes the equipment and procedures you will need to carry out either of these methods. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, January 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi274

Worker Protection Standard: Requirements for Agricultural Employers of Workers and Handlers

Pesticide testing.

Safety is a high concern for agricultural employers whose workers deal with hazardous materials, such as pesticides. In 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides (WPS), a regulation that requires agricultural employers to take steps to reduce pesticide-related risks for their workers and handlers. This five-page document describes the responsibilities of employers who must adhere to the WPS. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, January 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag417

Worker Protection Standard: Additional Requirements for Agricultural Employers of Workers

The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) Act for Agricultural Pesticides was established by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 1992 and has undergone several revisions since. Recent revised provisions became effective in January 2017. This document will address the additional requirements for agricultural employers of workers under the revised WPS. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, December 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi273

Micronutrients Considerations for Warm-Season Forage Grass Systems in Florida

Warm-season grasses are vital to livestock production systems and dominate ground cover in tropical and subtropical areas. The objective of this 7-page publication is to provide basic information about the role of micronutrients in warm-season grass production systems in Florida. Written by Jane C. Griffin, Joao Vendramini, Diane Rowland, and Maria L. Silveira and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, November 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag419

2016 Evaluation of Foliar Fungicides for Disease Control in Peanut in Jay, FL

A cluster of peanuts.This report includes a summary of the 2016 foliar fungicide programs for control of early and late leaf spot and white mold (southern stem rot) in peanut at Jay, Florida. It shows the effectiveness of 13 fungicide programs for disease control. This 6-page fact sheet discusses fungicide treatments, treatment rates, application timing, 2016 growing conditions, experimental design, and results. Written by Michael Mulvaney, Robert Kemerait, John Atkins, and Nicholas Dufault, and published by the UF Agronomy Department, April 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag415

Sugarcane Cultivars Descriptive Fact Sheet: CPCL 97-2730 and CPCL 00-4111

CPCL 00-4111 at late growth in muck soil.

CPCL 97-2730 and CPCL 00-4111 are emerging sugarcane cultivars in Florida with rapid expansion in last couple of years. Both were ranked among the top 10 sugarcane cultivars in Florida in the 2015 Sugarcane Variety Census (VanWeelden et al. 2016) based on their total acreage. High biomass yield and better rust resistance greatly improve the chances of the cultivars’ adoption by growers. This fact sheet provides basic information and yield and disease information about CPCL 97-2730 and CPCL 00-4111 to assist growers in decision-making related to further expansion of these cultivars. Written by Hardev Sandhu and Wayne Davidson, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, May 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sc103

Worker Protection Standard: Determining Your WPS Responsibilities

A single-nozzle backpack sprayer is useful for foliar treatment of many woody invasive plants.

In 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a comprehensive regulation called the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides (WPS). The EPA has made several changes to the WPS since it was fully implemented in 1995. This five-page document will address determining responsibilities under the revised WPS. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by UF’s Agronomy Department, September 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag418

Herbicide Residues in Manure, Compost, or Hay

Compost bin.

When purchasing compost, it is important to understand that some manure-based products can contain herbicide residues that can affect the growth of certain plants. Manure from animals that have been fed forage treated with aminopyralid or other closely related herbicides, such as clopyralid or picloram, can be contaminated with these herbicides, which severely restrict the growth of legume and solanaceous crops and other broadleaf plants. This 3-page fact sheet discusses aminopyralid, compost, questions to ask when purchasing bulk compost or mulch, conducting a bioassay, aminopyralid injury symptoms, and steps to consider if contaminated manure or compost has been added to a garden or field site. Written by Jason Ferrell, Peter Dittmar, and Brent Sellers, and published by the UF Agronomy Department, May 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag416

Worker Protection Standard: Respirators

Figure 5. Respirator use must conform to OSHA standards in the revised WPS.

On November 2, 2015, the EPA revised the WPS, making significant changes to the rule’s requirements. Most of the revised provisions became effective January 2, 2017; there are four provisions that are delayed until January 2, 2018. This four-page document will address respirator use under the revised WPS. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the Agronomy Department and the Pesticide Information Office.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi272

East Indian Hygrophila: Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson

Emergent growth of East Indian hygrophila.

East Indian hygrophila is a submersed aquatic weed that has invaded a number of aquatic systems in the southeastern United States. It is a federally listed noxious weed and a Florida Class II prohibited plant. Established populations of East Indian hygrophila interfere with human uses of bodies of water and disrupt ecosystems by forming dense, impenetrable monocultures that clog the water column, restrict water flow, and create poor habitat for aquatic fauna. This 5-page fact sheet provides an overview of the plant and discusses its habitat and control. Written by Lyn A. Gettys and Stephen F. Enloe, and published by the UF Agronomy Department, December 2016.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag413