School-Based 4-H Programming Series: Positive Youth Development (PYD) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL): How They Complement Each Other

Dina Liebowitz (white shirt) instructing 4-H youth in a shiitake mushroom making workshop at 4-H University. Photo taken 07-31-19.

Positive Youth Development (PYD) promotes building life skills, leadership, and relationships, and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) promotes knowledge, responsibility, and caring. Just as 4-H uses PYD as a framework, so schools use SEL. A whole program approach with appropriate curriculum provide the skills necessary for youth to succeed. This new 5-page publication of the UF/IFAS 4-H Youth Development Program explores the complementary relationship between PYD and SEL in a school-based program setting. Written by Vanessa Spero-Swingle.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h404

School-Based 4-H Programming Series: Setting Schools Up for Success

Andrea Lucky instructing 4H youth in pinning insect specimens. Photo taken 01-23-17.

Success at school-based sites to form 4-H clubs and programs will depend on utilizing the developmental practices of positive youth development and incorporating a set of principles known as the Essential Elements. Youth benefit from feeling like they belong, mastering a skill, gaining independence, and exhibiting generosity. The 4-H club atmosphere provides a setting for youth to achieve lifelong skills as long as they are given the opportunity to learn them. This new 4-page publication of the UF/IFAS 4-H Youth and Development Program was written by Vanessa Spero-Swingle.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h405

Impacts of Hurricane Damage on Southern Highbush Blueberries

Flooded blueberry container production after Hurricane Irma

Florida has been affected by eight hurricanes since 2000. This new 3-page publication discusses the types of hurricane damage that occur in blueberry production operations, the impacts of these damages, and some recommendations on best management practices in the aftermath of a storm. Written by Douglas A. Phillips, Jeffrey G. Williamson, and Philip F. Harmon and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1342

School-Based 4-H Programming Series: Designing Programs Based on Time Involvement

A 4H youth holding a baby chicken in her hands. Photo taken July of 2016.

One of the biggest factors to consider when starting a school-based program is the amount of time and level of commitment that can be provided for the 4-H program at that site. This new 5-page document discusses the degree of commitment, intensity, and Positive Youth Development (PYD) impact of the program. The most PYD-intensive program will include a model for sustainability. Sustainable programs will ultimately survive and thrive without continual supervision and daily maintenance. Written by Vanessa Spero-Swingle and published by the UF/IFAS 4-H Youth Development Program.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h406

Restricted Use Pesticides for Use in Florida

Phil Koehler, left, a professor of entomology with the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and Dempsey Sapp, president Florida Pest Control & Chemical Co. in Gainesville, check pesticides left unguarded from children and pets on a lawn service trailer. (UF/IFAS photo by Josh Wickham)

All pesticides are classified according to their toxicity, use pattern, and environmental effects. The two main classifications are unclassified use and restricted use, though unclassified pesticides are commonly referred to as general use pesticides. A restricted use pesticide is one that is for retail sale to and use by only certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision and only for those purposes covered by the applicator’s certification. This document will provide a listing of pesticide active ingredients registered in Florida that are classified as restricted and the reason(s) for the restricted use classification. This 4-page major revision was written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi073

Worker Protection Standard: Records of Employee Safety Training

Kenneth Gioeli, Extension Agent at St. Lucie Cooperative Extension Service, places empty pesticide containers in plastic bags readying them for recycling. Photo by Milt Putnam

The EPA’s Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides (WPS) covers pesticides used in the outdoor and enclosed-space production of plants on farms, forests, and nurseries, as well as greenhouses. The WPS requires agricultural employers to take steps to reduce pesticide-related risks when agricultural workers and pesticide handlers are exposed to these pesticides. The EPA has made several changes to the WPS since it was fully implemented in 1995, and this new 3-page document addresses maintaining records of worker and handler training under the revised WPS, including a sample employee-training verification. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi283

Toxicity of Common Indoor Household Insecticides Registered in Florida

White-Footed Ant: A tiny ant with a big appetite for sweets is the latest nuisance pest for South Florida residents. (UF/IFAS File Photo)

Insecticides are designed to control insect pests, but they can also be toxic (poisonous) to desirable plants and animals, including humans. Some pesticides are so highly toxic that very small quantities can kill a person, and almost any pesticide can make people ill if they are exposed to a sufficient amount. Because even safe pesticides, such as those intended for household use, can irritate the skin, eyes, nose, or mouth, it is a good idea to understand how pesticides can be toxic so you can follow practices designed to reduce or eliminate your exposure to them. This new 3-page document addresses the acute toxicity of common indoor household insecticide active ingredients registered in Florida and provides a table with mammalian toxicity values for each of these insecticides. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the UF/IFAS Pesticide Information office.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi282

Avicides

A flock of Red-Winged Blackbirds fly in a pecan grove durring a winter's morning ,Clay county. (UF/IFAS Photo by: Josh Wickham)

By and large, birds are beneficial because they provide enjoyment and recreation to humans and are vital to ecosystem balance. However, occasionally some species can compete with human interests. When these situations occur, some forms of control may become necessary. Avicides are pesticides designed to kill or repel pest birds. This new 2-page document addresses those avicides currently registered for use in Florida. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by the UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi281

Conducting the Needs Assessment, Part 1: Introduction

The need is the gap between "what is" and "what should be."

An integral step in the program development process is identifying the needs of a community. Educators seeking to develop and deliver an educational program must first be informed of what their audience lacks in order to develop the right curriculum or training. This initial publication in the Conducting the Needs Assessment series provides a brief introduction to the planning, implementation, and prioritization of needs within a community or specific clientele group. This new 4-page publication of the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural Education and Communication was written by Matthew Benge, Amy Harder, and Laura Warner.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/wc340

Weeds as Reservoirs of Plant Pathogens Affecting Economically Important Crops

White clover, a member of the Fabaceae family.

Weeds are a major contributor to yield loss and reduction in yield quality in an agricultural setting, competing with the crop for resources like light, water, and nutrients. This competition, along with the cost of weed management strategies like tillage and herbicides, is responsible for the economic impact of weeds, which can reach into the billions. Weeds can also harm crop plants by acting as reservoirs for destructive plant pathogens, the insect vectors that move these pathogens from plant to plant, or both. This new 7-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, written by Morgan Byron, Danielle Treadwell, and Peter Dittmar, summarizes previously published weed-pathogen associations to help growers scout and monitor pathogens in weeds near production areas.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1335

Exploring Citizenship, Unit VII: My World

4H youth participate in a 4H Food Smart Families healthy food shopping workshop.  Photo taken 05/25/16.

The 4-H Citizenship Project offers the opportunity to help 4-H members relate all of their 4-H projects and experiences to the world around them. The 4-H Citizenship manuals will serve as a guide for 4-H Citizenship experiences. To be truly meaningful to the real-life needs and interests of your group, the contribution of volunteer leaders is essential. Each person, neighborhood, and community has individual needs that you can help your group identify. This 14-page major revision of Unit VII covers the “My World” project. Written by John Rutledge, Joy C. Jordan, and Dale Pracht and published by the UF/IFAS Extension 4-H Youth Development program.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h021

Exploring Citizenship, Unit VI: My Government

4H youth raise votes in the old Senate building during 4H Legislature in Tallahassee, Florida.  Photo taken 06-29-16.

The 4-H Citizenship Project offers the opportunity to help 4-H members relate all of their 4-H projects and experiences to the world around them. The 4-H Citizenship manuals will serve as a guide for 4-H Citizenship experiences. To be truly meaningful to the real-life needs and interests of your group, the contribution of volunteer leaders is essential. Each person, neighborhood, and community has individual needs that you can help your group identify. This 23-page major revision of Unit VI covers the “My Government” project. Written by John Rutledge, Joy C. Jordan, and Dale Pracht and published by the UF/IFAS Extension 4-H Youth Development program.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h020

Exploring Citizenship, Unit V: My Community

2014 4H University Community Service Day at the Red Cross, washing an emergency vehicle.

The 4-H Citizenship Project offers the opportunity to help 4-H members relate all of their 4-H projects and experiences to the world around them. The 4-H Citizenship manuals will serve as a guide for 4-H Citizenship experiences. To be truly meaningful to the real-life needs and interests of your group, the contribution of volunteer leaders is essential. Each person, neighborhood, and community has individual needs that you can help your group identify. This 22-page major revision of Unit V covers the “My Community” project. Written by John Rutledge, Joy C. Jordan, and Dale Pracht and published by the UF/IFAS Extension 4-H Youth Development program.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h018

Exploring Citizenship, Unit IV: My Heritage

Credit: Pixabay.com

The 4-H Citizenship Project offers the opportunity to help 4-H members relate all of their 4-H projects and experiences to the world around them. The 4-H Citizenship manuals will serve as a guide for 4-H Citizenship experiences. To be truly meaningful to the real-life needs and interests of your group, the contribution of volunteer leaders is essential. Each person, neighborhood, and community has individual needs that you can help your group identify. This 14-page major revision of Unit IV covers the heritage project. Written by John Rutledge, Joy C. Jordan, and Dale Pracht and published by the UF/IFAS Extension 4-H Youth Development program.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h019

Exploring Citizenship: Volunteer Guide

4-H volunteers. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

The 4-H Citizenship Project offers the opportunity to help 4-H members relate all of their 4-H projects and experiences to the world around them. The 4-H Citizenship manuals will serve as a guide for 4-H Citizenship experiences. To be truly meaningful to the real-life needs and interests of your group, the contribution of volunteer leaders is essential. Each person, neighborhood, and community has individual needs that you can help your group identify. This 6-page Volunteer Guide is a major revision written by John Rutledge, Joy C. Jordan, and Dale Pracht and published by the UF/IFAS Extension 4-H Youth Development program.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h014

Identification and Management of Clustered Pellitory (Parietaria praetermissa) in Citrus Groves

New seedling emergence of clustered pellitory in a citrus grove.

In Florida, clustered pellitory is becoming a troublesome weed for citrus, especially from the winter through early summer. Inadequate management of this weed can result in its heavy infestation in tree rows and can interrupt the spray pattern of low-volume drip irrigation systems. This new 3-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department will assist Florida citrus growers with proper identification of clustered pellitory and with adoption of adequate and timely strategies to manage this weed in their groves. Written by Ramdas Kanissery, Biwek Gairhe, Brent Sellers, and Steve Futch.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1341

Rootstock Selection

Citrus research in a greenhouse at Citrus REC in Lake Alfred.

The large number of different rootstock varieties currently available for citrus production in Florida is unprecedented. This new 4-page article, chapter 4 of the forthcoming UF/IFAS Citrus Nursery Production Guide, provides information on rootstock uses in Florida, rootstock propagation, and the impact of tissue culture, as well as factors to consider when deciding which rootstock to plant. Written by Ute Albrecht, Manjul Dutt, and Jude Grosser and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1340

Seed and Budwood Production, Transport, and Conservation

Dr. Fred Gmitter examining citrus trees in a greenhouse at the Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred. Photo taken 03/08/16.

The Florida citrus industry maintains a high demand for trees for replanting and resetting, as well as an interest in new releases of rootstocks and scions with improved disease and abiotic stress tolerances. One of the main constraints for liner production in great numbers is time. The consensus among citrus nurseries is that it takes two years to produce enough quantities of budwood to establish seed block trees when a new interesting rootstock is produced. This new 3-page article addresses the practices and challenges of producing seeds and budwood in Florida. This article, chapter 7 of the forthcoming Citrus Nursery Production Guide, was written by Fernando Alferez and Mireia Bordas and is a publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1336

Citrus Rootstock Propagation: Traditional Techniques and Recent Advances

Freshly cut single internodes placed in potting mix with leaf blade attached but reduced in size

Commercially grown citrus trees are usually composed of two parts: 1) the scion, which is the aboveground portion of the tree that produces the fruit, and 2) the rootstock, which comprises the root system and the lower portion of the trunk. This new 4-page publication, chapter 6 of the forthcoming Citrus Nursery Production Guide, discusses three kinds of rootstock propagation: seed, cuttings, and tissue culture. Written by Ute Albrecht, Lorenzo Rossi, and Mongi Zekri and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1329

Current Status of Research, Regulations, and Future Challenges for CRISPR Gene Editing in Crop Improvement

Hydroponic tomatoes growing on the vine in a greenhouse. Photo taken on 03-14-17

Recently, new plant-breeding technology such as CRISPR gene editing has provided the potential to substantially improve crop breeding in agriculture. Considerable efforts have been devoted to apply this gene-editing technology in modern agriculture to increase crop yields and improve the quality of food ingredients, especially by many of the major agronomic seed-producing companies. In this new 4-page article, we outline the recent research updates and regulations on gene editing in crop improvement. Written by Sadikshya Sharma, Heqiang Huo, and Seonghee Lee and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1334