Biology and Management of Garden Spurge (Euphorbia hirta) in Ornamental Crop Production

Young garden spurge seedlings, approximately 2 weeks after germination.

Garden spurge is a prostrate, herbaceous, short-lived, warm-season annual weed commonly found in Florida landscapes, container nurseries, and other agricultural production areas. This 5-page article is written to aid green industry professionals and others in the identification and management of garden spurge in and around ornamental plants. Written by Thomas Smith, Chris Marble, Shawn Steed, and Nathan Boyd, and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department, July 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep586

Bagasse: A Potential Organic Soil Amendment Used in Sugarcane Production

Pile of bagasse collected at the US Sugar processing plant in Clewiston, FL.

Bagasse is an agricultural by-product derived from the sugarcane milling process. It is a dry and fibrous residue left after the extraction of sugar juice from sugarcane. This 5-page document is a preliminary investigation into the possible effects of using bagasse as a soil amendment. Written by Jehangir H. Bhadha, Nan Xu, Raju Khatiwada, Stewart Swanson, and Chris LaBorde, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Soil and Water Sciences, August 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss690

Production Guide for Choy Sum: An Emerging Asian Vegetable in Florida

Cooked choy sum. A) Flowered choy sum chopped into pieces and stir-fried with dried chili pepper. Credit: Yi Wang; B) Purple choy sum chopped and stir-fried with garlic and Sichuan peppercorns. Credits: Yi Wang, Kaijiang, Sichuan, China

Choy sum, also known as Chinese flowering cabbage, is a leafy vegetable that has been widely cultivated in southern China for more than 1,000 years, and is currently cultivated and consumed by a growing population in the western world. This new 5-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, written by Yanlin Wang and Guodong Liu, provides a brief overview of choy sum and its cultivation, as well as some suggestions for how to include it in a meal.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1380

Recomendaciones para el Control y Mitigación de la Marchitez del Laurel y sus Vectores, los Escarabajos Ambrosia, en Arboledas Comerciales de Aguacate en Florida

Avocado. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

This is the Spanish translation of Recommendations for Control and Mitigation of Laurel Wilt and Ambrosia Beetle Vectors in Commercial Avocado Groves in Florida (HS1360). Laurel wilt and the ambrosia beetle vectors that transmit this lethal disease have and will continue to affect avocado production in Florida. At least 50% of the commercial producers are Hispanic Americans and some are more comfortable with publications in Spanish. The translator, Rubén Regalado, and reviewer, Carlos Balerdi, are both previous employees of UF/IFAS.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1379

Selection and Preparation of Planting Material for Successful Hop Production in Florida

‘Cascade’ hop tissue-cultured liners. These liners need to be transplanted and grown in pots until they reach a suitable size for field setting. Credits: Shinsuke Agehara, UF/IFAS

Hops (Humulus lupulus L.), an essential ingredient in beer, have potential to develop as a viable alternative crop in Florida. In our surveys, many breweries have expressed strong interest in using locally grown hops. However, hop production is plagued by many diseases, most of which were inadvertently introduced through the movement of contaminated planting material. The primary purposes of this new 7-page article are to prevent the introduction of these diseases into the state and to provide recommendations for selecting and preparing planting material for successful hop production in Florida. This publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department is part of a larger series that will review the challenges of hop production, based on research experience at the UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (UF/IFAS GCREC) in Balm, FL.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1381

Daikon Radish Cultivation Guide for Florida

Healthy daikon radish foliage (A) and root (B) at approximately 6 weeks. Credits: Mary Dixon, UF/IFAS

Daikon radish is a versatile vegetable crop in the mustard family. It produces a large, white, cylindrical fleshy root weighing up to 4-7 lb. Daikon radish is an especially common vegetable in Asia, particularly Japan, and it tends to be less spicy than other garden types of radish. This new 7-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department provides a primer on cultivation of daikon in Florida, including sections on propagation, growing conditions, pests and diseases, and agricultural, culinary, and medicinal uses. Written by Mary Dixon and Guodong Liu.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1370

Weed Management in Peanuts

Rows of peanuts ready to be harvested. Photo taken 08-22-19.

Successful weed control in peanuts involves use of good management practices in all phases of peanut production. This 11-page document lists herbicide products registered for use in Florida peanut production, their mode of actions group, application rate per acre and per season, and reentry interval. It also discusses the performance of these herbicides on several weeds under Florida conditions. Written by J. A. Ferrell, G. E. MacDonald, and P. Devkota, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised May 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/wg008

Adjusting Crop Yield to a Standard Moisture Content

Corn stalks growing in a field.

Since there are different ways to report moisture (as a decimal or as a percentage), and because the calculation seems intuitive, there is some confusion among agricultural professionals about how to adjust yield to a standardized moisture content. This 4-page publication aims to clarify the concept and the math. Written by Michael J. Mulvaney and Pratap Devkota, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, May 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag442

Florida Cultivation Guide for Malabar Spinach

Malabar spinach flower. Credits: Chunfang Li, FDACS-DPI

Malabar spinach (Basella spp.) is a nutritious vegetable in the family Basellaceae. Malabar spinach goes by many names, including Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, vine spinach, and climbing spinach. Malabar spinach has long been established in cultivation in China and India. This spinach is a novel crop to Florida and is currently grown only for niche markets. However, Florida’s suitable climate coupled with Malabar spinach’s great taste and nutritional quality suggest that this crop has great potential for commercial cultivation. This new 8-page publication of the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department describes in brief how to grow Malabar spinach, manage pests, harvest, and market it. Written by Yuheng Qiu and Guodong Liu.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1371

Bacterial Black Spot (BBS) of Mango in Florida

Mangos on trees. Photo taken 06-27-18.  Photo Credits:  UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones

Bacterial black spot, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, is a relatively new (~2015) bacterial disease in Florida that has the potential to limit mango production of some cultivars. This new 6-page fact sheet provides the current knowledge and status of the disease potential on various cultivars. Written by Jonathan Crane and Romina Gazis, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1369

Mite Pests of Southern Highbush Blueberry in Florida

Southern red mite shed skins.

This 4-page document discusses life cycles, damage, monitoring, and management of southern red mites and false spider mites in southern highbush blueberries. Written by Oscar E. Liburd, Lorena Lopez, and Doug Phillips, and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department, June 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1284

Development of a Model Mutagenesis System for Snapdragon

Different uses of snapdragons.

This 4-page document describes the advantages of snapdragon’s elegant transposon mutagenesis system and its connection to plant breeding. Written by Zhaoyuan Lian, Heqiang Huo, Sandra Wilson, and Jianjun Chen, and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department, August 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep584

Hemp Fertilization: Current Knowledge, Gaps and Efforts in Florida: A 2020 Report

Hemp (Cannabis sativa) cultivation in Florida. Credits: Luis Monserrate, graduate student, UF/IFAS Agronomy Department

Hemp is an annual herbaceous plant that may be grown for fiber, seed, or flowers. Starting in April 2020, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services began accepting applications for cultivation of hemp in Florida, with the potential for building a $20-$30 billion industry in the state. The statewide UF/IFAS Industrial Hemp Pilot Project is researching aspects of agronomic production for hemp cultivation. While a few other state soil testing laboratories provide soil tests and nutrient recommendations based on research and experience, at this time no Florida-specific data on nutrient requirements and fertilization are available. This new 5-page article, written by Rao Mylavarapu, Zachary Brym, Luis Monserrate, and Michael J. Mulvaney and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Soil and Water Sciences, provides a summary of published and personal communications from different states on hemp fertilization.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss689

LED light increases leaf area and root length of Humulus lupulus (var. Tettnanger) in vitro

Hops cones on the vine. Credit: Tyler Jones, UF/IFAS

Propagation of hops has traditionally been accomplished through vegetative techniques. A more modern technique, micropropagation, can be used to propagate hops and offers several advantages to vegetative techniques. Research examining the use of LED lights in plant production has observed its ability to promote growth in plants through emission of higher light quality, such as enhanced red and blue wavelength discharge. This new 5-page EDIS publication provides information on the use and application of LED lights to enhance leaf area and root length of hops. Written by Chi D. Nguyen, Dominic Vu, Heqiang Huo, and Brian Pearson, and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep583

Computer Tools for Diagnosing Citrus Leaf Symptoms (Part 1): Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)

Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) logo

This new 2-page article provides instructions for using the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System, or DRIS, a web tool designed for analyzing leaf nutrient concentrations of Florida citrus. Written by Arnold Schumann and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Soil and Water Sciences.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss683

Bermudagrass Production in Florida

Tifton 85 bermudagrass hayfield in Florida.

This 10-page document is primarily for Extension agents and farmers looking for detailed information about bermudagrass production in Florida, including cultivar characteristics, fertilization, and pest and disease management. Written by M. O. Wallau, J. M. B. Vendramini, and J. K. Yarborough, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised May 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/aa200

Small-to-Medium-Scale Sensory Evaluation of Horticultural Crops: Measuring Responses

Six coffee roasting grades. From top left to bottom right: light cinnamon, cinnamon, normal, French roasting, espresso and open fire. Credits: Godewind, Wikimedia

When measuring the responses of panelists, the main principle behind sensory evaluation, a variety of sensory tests can be used. This new 4-page publication is the second in a series designed to assist producers in the small-to-medium-sized sensory evaluation of their horticultural crops, outlining the types of data and sensory measurement techniques utilized in sensory evaluation. Written by Sean Michael Campbell and Charles A. Sims, and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep582

How to Avoid Common Problems with Leaf Wetness Sensor Installation and Maintenance

Wildlife and grain forage trial plots at the North Florida Research and Education Center in Quincy, Florida.

Leaf wetness duration is an essential input in disease prediction models and decision support systems in Florida and elsewhere. Incorrect installation or lack of regular maintenance of leaf wetness sensors may lead to errors in plant disease risk monitoring and negative impacts on yield. This 7-page publication provides detailed guidelines for the proper installation and maintenance of leaf wetness sensors and describes the most common problems found in field installations as well as potential solutions. Written by T. B. Onofre, C. W. Fraisse, N. A. Peres, and J. McNair, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, February 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae538

Using Supplemental Lighting to Control Flowering of Hops in Florida

The UF/IFAS GCREC research hop yard in Balm, FL at night. Credits: Shinsuke Agehara, UF/IFAS

Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are an emerging crop in Florida. Florida’s craft beer industry has experienced significant growth over the last 10 years, with 285 breweries producing 42.6 million gallons of beer and generating an economic impact of $3.6 billion in 2018. To respond to their strong demand for locally grown hops, an interdisciplinary hops research team is currently studying optimum crop management practices at the UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (UF/IFAS GCREC). In Florida, the major yield-limiting factor is premature flowering induced by inadequate day length. This new 4-page article, written by Shinsuke Agehara and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, provides guidelines for supplemental lighting to control flowering of hops in Florida.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1365

Small-to-Medium-Scale Sensory Evaluation of Horticultural Crops: Sensory Attributes

Examples of different particle and moisture components of texture and consistency in varying mustard samples.

Given the economic impact associated with the value and acceptability of horticultural crops, sensory evaluation is commonly employed in research, product development, and quality control, with very specific parameters outlined for its proper execution. The resulting data can be used to make sound decisions about crop quality and marketability, ultimately determining the overall value. This new 3-page publication of the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department is the first in a series designed to assist producers in the small-to-medium-scale sensory evaluation of their horticultural crops, outlining sensory attributes essential to sensory evaluation, including appearance, aroma, texture, and flavor. Written by Sean Michael Campbell and Charles A. Sims.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep579