ET-Based Irrigation Scheduling for Papaya (Carica papaya) in Florida

Fruiting papaya trees at the Tropical Research and Education Center in Homestead, FL. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

Three irrigation scheduling methods (set schedule, ET-based, and tensiometer-based) were tested for papaya production in south Florida. ET-based irrigation scheduling was found to conserve water effectively. This 6-page document primarily focuses on the ET-based irrigation scheduling techniques for papaya under Florida conditions. Written by Haimanote K. Bayabil, Jonathan H. Crane, Kati W. Migliaccio, Yuncong Li, and Fredy Ballen, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, March 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae540

Urban Fertilizer Ordinances in the Context of Environmental Horticulture and Water Quality Extension Programs: Frequently Asked Questions

Gardener fertilizing yard. Grass, turf, broadcast spreader.

Excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in water bodies are a leading cause of water quality degradation statewide. More than 50 Florida counties and municipalities now have formal fertilizer ordinances, which in some cases include fertilizer blackouts, or bans on the usage of N and P fertilizers during certain times of the year. This 8-page document provides information on the underlying issues of fertilizer use, with an emphasis on an urban setting, and outlines the current state of the science on urban fertilizers and water quality in Florida. Written by Michael D. Dukes, Lisa Krimsky, Mary Lusk, Laurie Trenholm, Bryan Unruh, Michelle Atkinson, and Rao Mylavarapu, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, February 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae534

What Does Florida Weather during the Past 20 Years Look Like?: Florida Weather Represented by the Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN)

Storm rising over a farm.

This 8-page document gives an overview of Florida temperature and rainfall during the past 20 years based on historical FAWN data to provide information about the temporal and spatial trends of Florida weather and the frequency and size of extreme weather events such as heavy rainfall and drought. This document also investigates the characteristics of drought and heavy rainfall in relation to hurricanes and tropical storms. Written by Satbyeol Shin, Young Gu Her, Geraldina Zhang, and William Lusher, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, January 2020.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae537

Residential Irrigation Water Costs in Osceola County and Orange County, Florida

Single-family, detached homes.

Interest in understanding water use and irrigation costs has risen in recent years. This case study is a 5-page evaluation of water use and associated costs for residential landscape irrigation in Osceola County and Orange County, Florida. Homeowners in central Florida can use the results to assess their water consumption and bills in relation to similar homes in the area. Written by Nick Taylor, Tricia Kyzar, Pierce Jones, and Kaitlin O. Robb Price, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, December 2019.
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae536

Preflight and Flight Instructions on the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Agricultural Applications

A drone aircraft in mid-flight. Photo taken 06-14-19.

This 5-page document provides guidance on the appropriate use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for agricultural applications in Florida. It contains step-by-step instructions for preparing a UAV for flight, creating a mission path (using flight mission planning apps), and collecting UAV-based data. Written by Sri Charan Kakarla, Leon De Morais Nunes, and Yiannis Ampatzidis, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, November 2019.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae535

Postflight Data Processing Instructions on the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Agricultural Applications

A drone aircraft in mid-flight. Photo taken 06-14-19.

Remote sensing applications for agriculture often require periodically collected high-resolution data, which are difficult to obtain by manned flights or satellite imagery. This 6-page document provides guidance on the use of post-processing software to visualize data collected by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for agricultural applications. It provides step-by-step instructions for using the data collected from a UAV flight to create several types of maps and indices. Written by Sri Charan Kakarla and Yiannis Ampatzidis, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, October 2019.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae533

Estasyon Meteyo nan Jaden: Gid pou Enstalasyon ak Antretyen

Palm trees being blown by the winds of an approaching storm. Severe weather, rain, beach, coast. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

Kondisyon meteyo yo ka jwe yon gwo wòl nan siksè oswa echèk aktivite agrikòl yo. Kiltivatè yo rekonèt sa e se sak fè yo toujou swiv bilten ak previzyon meteyo pou ka ede yo pran desizyon nan sa ki gen pou wè ak irigasyon, pwoteksyon kont fredi ansanm ak anpil lòt desizyon. This new 4-page publication is the Haitian Creole version of EDIS document AE532, Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Farm-Based Weather Stations in Haiti. Written by Caroline G. Staub, William Eisenstadt, William Blanc, Nicole Monval, Clyde W. Fraisse, William Lusher, George Braun, and Lee Staudt, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, May 2019.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae531

Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Farm-Based Weather Stations in Haiti

Palm trees being blown by the winds of an approaching storm. Severe weather, rain, beach, coast. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

Weather can significantly influence the success or failure of agricultural enterprises. Monitoring weather conditions can provide critical decision-making information. This new 4-page publication provides Haitian farmers with basic guidelines for installing and maintaining an on-farm weather station. Written by Caroline G. Staub, William Eisenstadt, William Blanc, Nicole Monval, Clyde W. Fraisse, William Lusher, George Braun, and Lee Staudt, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, May 2019.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae532

Permeable Pavement Systems: Technical Considerations

Newly installed PICP parking stalls as part of a commercial installation. Note the curb separating landscaping and directing runoff away from the pavement surface.

Permeable pavement systems are Green Stormwater Infrastructure practices that can reduce runoff while supporting vehicle and pedestrian traffic. This new 8-page document provides technical details of permeable pavement systems, such as application, system elements, design, installation, operation, maintenance, crediting, and costs, in order to inform planners, engineers, landscape architects, local government officials, and other professionals in the built environment about the considerations for implementing and maintaining permeable pavements. Written by E. Bean, M. Clark, and B. Larson, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, April 2019.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae530

Applications of Artificial Intelligence for Precision Agriculture

Real-time citrus detection using YOLO (a real-time AI object detection algorithm) on an NVidia Jetson TX2 board (Graphics Processing Unit, GPU). These results are achieved by using just 150 pictures to train the AI-based system.

Technological advances in computer vision, mechatronics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning have enabled the development and implementation of remote sensing technologies for plant, weed, pest, and disease identification and management. They provide a unique opportunity for the development of intelligent agricultural systems for precision applications. This 5-page document discusses the concepts of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning and presents several examples to demonstrate the application of AI in agriculture. Written by Yiannis Ampatzidis, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, December 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae529

Hurricane Impacts on Florida's Agriculture and Natural Resources

Two oak trees downed due to Hurricane Irma. Photo taken 09-14-17

Hurricanes are capable of affecting almost everything in their paths. Their strong winds and heavy rains can directly impact both inland and coastal areas in short periods that usually last about a day. This new 10-page document reviews basic facts about hurricanes and their effects in Florida and discusses ways they might affect Florida's agriculture and natural resources. Written by Young Gu Her, Ashley Smyth, Pamela Fletcher, Elias Bassil, Ulrich Stingl, Zachary Brym, and Jiangxiao Qiu, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae528

Lightning Safety for Florida Agriculture Workers

Lightning streaking across a sky.

Lightning is a common occurrence in Florida. Although lightning kills only about 10% of the people it strikes, it can cause physical and mental complications that victims must face for the rest of their lives. Agriculture workers need to have a good working knowledge of lightning, its effects, and ways to protect others and themselves from this potentially life-threatening hazard. This new 4-page document discusses types of lightning, outdoor safety for farm workers, lightning medical aid, and regulations for employers. Written by Shawn Steed and Alicia Whidden, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae526

Instructions on the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

Franklin Percival, left, and Peter Ifju, professors at the University of Florida, examine a small plane that can photograph and monitor wildlife and their habitats - Oct. 19, 2004. Controlled by its own on-board computer, the plane stores and downlinks high-quality video and flight data to researchers on the ground. The unmanned aerial vehicle, or UAV, is being developed by UF's College of Engineering in cooperation with UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. (AP photo/University of Florida/IFAS/Marisol Amador)

All research and commercial activities involving the use of UAVs must be conducted in compliance with applicable federal and state laws, statutes, and regulations. This new 5-page document provides guidance on the appropriate use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in Florida. Written by Sri Charan Kakarla and Yiannis Ampatzidis, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae527

Degree-Days: Growing, Heating, and Cooling

Corn stalks growing in a field

How much and when it rains, freezes, and thaws can make the difference between boom and bust for a year's crop. However, temperature can predict more than boom or bust. Atmospheric temperature can predict the growth rates of many plants. For this reason, growers use a concept called growing degree-days (GDD), sometimes called heat units. This 5-page document discusses growing degree-days, use of the AgroClimate website to track and forecast GDD accumulation, heating and cooling degree-days, and methods for calculating HDD, CDD, and GDD. Written by Clyde W. Fraisse and Silvana V. Paula-Moraes, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, revised December 2010 and April 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae428

AgroClimate Crop Season Planning Tool: Reducing the Risk of Extreme Weather Events During Key Stages of Crop Development

Storm rising over a farm.

This 5-page publication details a new tool available to growers and Extension professionals to manage risks related to climate during seasonal planning stages. The Crop Season Planning tool is a climate-based tool that enables growers to plan planting strategies that will minimize risk to climate extremes based on historical climate data at their location. Written by Caroline G. Staub, Daniel Perondi, Diego Noleto Luz Pequeno, Patrick Troy, Michael J. Mulvaney, Calvin Perry, Brian Hayes, Willingthon Pavan, and Clyde W. Fraisse, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, March 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae525

How Likely Is a 100-Year Rainfall Event During the Next Ten Years?

Storm rising over a farm.

This 4-page fact sheet describes proper interpretation of rainfall event probabilities and recurrence intervals, particularly as they are used by engineers and water resources managers in the design and construction of hydraulic structures, such as dams, levees, and canals. This article focuses on rainfall, but its explanations and concepts can be applied to other extreme hydrologic phenomena such as flood and drought. Written by Young Gu Her, William Lusher, and Kati Migliaccio, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, March 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae523

Plant and Pest Diagnosis and Identification Through DDIS

Rose specimens infected with rose rosette virus. Photo taken on 10-3-15

Pest identification and diagnosis can be difficult and often require consultation with a specialist. Extension county faculty, state specialists, and faculty of the UF/IFAS Office of Information Technology developed the Distance Diagnostic and Identification System (DDIS), which allows users to submit digital images obtained in the field or after delivery to a local Extension office for rapid diagnosis and identification of pest insects, weeds, diseases, and animals. This 4-page document discusses typical DDIS hardware and camera, the DDIS process, sample types, user roles, DDIS for Extension clientele, and DDIS Mobile. Written by J. Xin, L. Buss, C. Harmon, P. Vergot III, M. Frank, and W. Lester, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, revised March 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae225

What Is a Wireless Sensor Network?

Forage grass and an irrigation sprinkler

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a system designed to remotely monitor and control a specific phenomenon or event. This new 2-page fact sheet discusses the advantages that the WSN has over traditional stand-alone sensors and controllers, power consumption and conservation, and WSN technologies. Written by Clyde Fraisse, Janise McNair, and Thiago Borba Onofre, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, January 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae521

Microirrigation for Home Landscapes

Microspray.Microirrigation is a way to water plants using low pressure and low flowrates (usually 15 psi or less and 60 gph or less). Microirrigation systems can be easy to install above, on, or below the soil or mulch in landscape beds and are inexpensive to purchase. This 3-page fact sheet discusses types of microirrigation systems, benefits, design and installation, and maintenance. Written by Anne Yasalonis and Michael Dukes, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, October 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae524

What Is the ENSO Climatology Tool?

Storm rising over a farm.On a global scale, periodic anomalies in sea surface temperatures coupled with shifts in atmospheric pressure and winds, such as those associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), can have profound impacts on weather conditions. ENSO affects atmospheric circulation patterns well into the midlatitudes and is the leading driver of seasonal climate variability in the United States. Tremendous advances have been made in predicting the occurrence of ENSO events with confidence three to six months in advance. This 5-page fact sheet discusses the ENSO climatology tool as well as possible challenges. Written by Caroline Staub, Clyde Fraisse, Eduardo Gelcer, and Daniel Dourte, and published by the UF Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, March 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae522