Applications of Artificial Intelligence for Precision Agriculture

Real-time citrus detection using YOLO (a real-time AI object detection algorithm) on an NVidia Jetson TX2 board (Graphics Processing Unit, GPU). These results are achieved by using just 150 pictures to train the AI-based system.

Technological advances in computer vision, mechatronics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning have enabled the development and implementation of remote sensing technologies for plant, weed, pest, and disease identification and management. They provide a unique opportunity for the development of intelligent agricultural systems for precision applications. This 5-page document discusses the concepts of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning and presents several examples to demonstrate the application of AI in agriculture. Written by Yiannis Ampatzidis, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, December 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae529

Are Cows Comfortable in Modern Dairy Facilities?

A dairy calf. Photo taken 04-01-17.

The main challenge of modern large dairy operations is to achieve high milk yield per cow without sacrificing health and welfare. Properly designed and managed facilities allow calves, heifers, and cows to be comfortable and successfully grow, mature, maintain health, and reach peak performance. This 8-page document discusses facilities, cow comfort, resting behavior, feed and water access and availability, stocking density, and heat stress. Written by Izabella Toledo, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, December 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an349

Calibrating Forage Seeding Equipment

Oat and ryegrass seeds mixed in the main seedbox. Smaller ryegrass seed increases the speed of the flow compared to oat only.

Establishing forages from seeds often requires precision equipment to achieve specific seeding rates for a proper pasture stand. Most pieces of equipment have calibration charts, which are useful guides for making an initial setting. However, due to variations in seed size, purity, moisture content, equipment performance, ground speed, and other factors, calibrating equipment prior to each use is recommended. This 5-page document discusses a few calibration techniques for drills and broadcast spreaders. Written by Marcelo Wallau, Joao Vendramini, and Ed Jennings, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised November 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag158

A Walk on the Wild Side: 2018 Cool-Season Forage Recommendations for Wildlife Food Plots in North Florida

Triticale (FL 08128) variety. Photo taken 04-18-18

Nationally, there is great interest in wildlife forages. Florida's light and sandy soils, hot and humid summers, and seasonal droughts pose unique challenges for successful food plot plantings. This 5-page document provides updated cool-season forage recommendations for wildlife food plots in north Florida. Written by A. R. Blount, M. Wallau, H. K. Ober, E. Rios, J. M. B. Vendramini, J. C. B. Dubeux, Md. A. Babar, C. L. Mackowiak, and K. H. Quesenberry, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised November 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag139

Brazilian Peppertree Control

Brazilian Peppertree. Image used in the 2014 Research Discoveries report.

Brazilian peppertree is encroaching upon nearly all terrestrial ecosystems in central and south Florida. This 5-page document discusses the plant's habitat, identification, characteristics, and biology as well as control methods. Written by K. T. Gioeli, S. F. Enloe, C. R. Minteer, and K. A. Langeland, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised November 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/aa219

Healthy Living: Monitoring Your Blood Pressure at Home

Homes in the Harmony energy efficient community that was developed with the help of UF/IFAS. Photo taken 06/14/16.

Do you think your blood pressure may be too high? Have you been diagnosed with high blood pressure? In either case, it is recommended that you monitor your blood pressure at home and get it checked at the doctor's office. This 4-page document discusses how to monitor your blood pressure at home. Written by Linda B. Bobroff, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, revised November 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1126

Hurricane Impacts on Florida's Agriculture and Natural Resources

Two oak trees downed due to Hurricane Irma. Photo taken 09-14-17

Hurricanes are capable of affecting almost everything in their paths. Their strong winds and heavy rains can directly impact both inland and coastal areas in short periods that usually last about a day. This new 10-page document reviews basic facts about hurricanes and their effects in Florida and discusses ways they might affect Florida's agriculture and natural resources. Written by Young Gu Her, Ashley Smyth, Pamela Fletcher, Elias Bassil, Ulrich Stingl, Zachary Brym, and Jiangxiao Qiu, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae528

Forage-Based Heifer Development Program for North Florida

Young heifers at the Range Cattle Research Station. These beef cows are all at least 3/4 Angus. They are part of an attempt to create a white Angus breed. During the summer the white cows, coined "white Angus" by the researchers in Ona, have a body temperature that is one degree cooler than the traditional black Angus. UF/IFAS Photo: Sally Lanigan.

Developing replacement heifers to become productive females in the cow herd is a tremendous investment in a cow-calf operation that takes several years to make a return. Fortunately, there are several options to develop heifers on forage-based programs that can help reduce costs while meeting required industry performance targets. This new 4-page document proposes a model for replacement heifer development based on forage research trials at the UF/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center (UF/IFAS NFREC) in Marianna, FL. Written by Jose Dubeux, Nicolas DiLorenzo, Kalyn Waters, and Jane C. Griffin, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag424

Methods of Trace Mineral Supplementation

Cattle being fed grain at the Beef Teaching Unit.

The forage cattle consume as the bulk of their diet is often deficient in trace mineral concentrations. Cattle producers can choose from a number of different methods to provide supplemental trace minerals to cattle. This 3-page document discusses several common ways to provide trace mineral supplements as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Written by Matt Hersom and Todd Thrift, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an348

Lightning Safety for Florida Agriculture Workers

Lightning streaking across a sky.

Lightning is a common occurrence in Florida. Although lightning kills only about 10% of the people it strikes, it can cause physical and mental complications that victims must face for the rest of their lives. Agriculture workers need to have a good working knowledge of lightning, its effects, and ways to protect others and themselves from this potentially life-threatening hazard. This new 4-page document discusses types of lightning, outdoor safety for farm workers, lightning medical aid, and regulations for employers. Written by Shawn Steed and Alicia Whidden, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae526

Ecosystem Services Provided by Grass-Legume Pastures

Perennial peanut ground covering. Legumes, hay, feedstock. UF/IFAS Photo.

Grasslands produce far more than beef and milk. They provide ecosystem services that benefit people and the environment. This new 3-page document discusses how integrating forage legumes into grasslands enhances their capacity to provide ecosystem services, such as C sequestration, habitat for wildlife and pollinators, water catchment and purification, and nutrient cycling. Written by Jose Dubeux, Jr., Lynn Sollenberger, Mark Mauldin, and Liza Garcia, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag423

Instructions on the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

Franklin Percival, left, and Peter Ifju, professors at the University of Florida, examine a small plane that can photograph and monitor wildlife and their habitats - Oct. 19, 2004. Controlled by its own on-board computer, the plane stores and downlinks high-quality video and flight data to researchers on the ground. The unmanned aerial vehicle, or UAV, is being developed by UF's College of Engineering in cooperation with UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. (AP photo/University of Florida/IFAS/Marisol Amador)

All research and commercial activities involving the use of UAVs must be conducted in compliance with applicable federal and state laws, statutes, and regulations. This new 5-page document provides guidance on the appropriate use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in Florida. Written by Sri Charan Kakarla and Yiannis Ampatzidis, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, October 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae527

Natural Products for Managing Landscape and Garden Pests in Florida

A brown lacewing larva, Micromus posticus, feeding on aphid pests of a rose bush. This soft-bodied predator would likely be killed by natural insecticides intended for the aphids.

Pest control professionals and homeowners throughout Florida and the southeastern US are seeking effective options that are safer for people and the environment than some conventional synthetic pesticides. There is also rising interest in organic gardening, which relies on natural pesticides. This 13-page fact sheet describes natural products for use in residential landscapes and gardens. Written by Matthew A. Borden, Eileen A. Buss, Sydney G. Park Brown, and Adam G. Dale, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology, revised September 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in197

Alimentacion Saludable: Liquidos

A man examines a glass of water in the sunlight.

Más de la mitad del peso del cuerpo humano adulto es agua. El agua transporta nutrientes a las células en nuestros cuerpos y remueve los residuos. Nuestros cuerpos no podrían funcionar sin una fuente de agua adecuada. This 2-page fact sheet discusses the importance of water, effects of dehydration, implications for older persons, suggested fluid intake, and ways to include more water in one’s diet. It is the Spanish version of Healthy Eating: Fluids. Written by Linda B. Bobroff, Luisa Oliver-Cordero, and Emily Minton, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, revised September 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy071

Alimentacion Saludable: Bebidas saludables

Strawberries, kiwi fruit, wheat grass, a banana, and a strawberry flavored milk shake. Fragaria, fruits, foods, red, sweets, healthy eating.

Los batidos son una manera deliciosa de incorporar más frutas y nutrientes a su dieta. This 2-page fact sheet provides tasty recipes for shakes and smoothies. It is the Spanish version of Healthy Eating: Drink to Your Health. Written by Jennifer Hillan, Emily Minton, and Linda B. Bobroff, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, revised September 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy697

What Is the Economic Impact of Infertility in Beef Cattle?

Cattle at the North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna, Florida.

Producers cannot completely control infertility in their cow herds. However, understanding and addressing the factors that affect infertility will help producers implement management practices that can improve fertility and reduce the negative impacts of infertility on the profitability of beef cow-calf operations. This 4-page fact sheet discusses reasons why beef cows fail to become pregnant or wean a calf, identification of infertile beef cows, and economic impacts of reduced fertility and infertility in beef cattle. Written by Chris Prevatt, G. Cliff Lamb, Carl Dahlen, Vitor R. G. Mercadante, and Kalyn Waters, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, revised September 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an208

How to Measure Body Condition Score in Florida Beef Cattle

Beef Cattle at the Straughn Extension Professional Development Center and at the Horse Teaching Unit. Livestock, cows.

Body condition score (BCS) is both a good indicator of the past nutritional status of a cow and a way to determine future nutritional needs. The BCS technique is easy to learn and can help with management decisions. This new 5-page fact sheet discusses reasons to measure BCS, ways to evaluate BCS, and important assessment times. Written by Matt Hersom and Todd Thrift, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, August 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an347

Integrated Management of Non-Native Plants in Natural Areas of Florida

Air potato. Invasive yam species, perennial vine, poison plants. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

While natural areas are conservation lands that have been set aside for the purpose of preserving (or restoring) native plant and animal communities, they do require active management. One of the greatest management issues in natural areas is invasive plants. This 35-page publication provides land managers in Florida with current methods used to manage non-native plants. Written by Stephen F. Enloe, Ken Langeland, Jason Ferrell, Brent Sellers, and Greg MacDonald, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, revised July 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/wg209

Mycotoxins in Florida Pastures

Beef cattle feeding in pasture.

Beef cattle producers in Florida have expressed concerns about the potential presence of mycotoxins in summer perennial forages. In other regions of the US, mycotoxins in forage crops have caused productivity and economic losses. This 3-page fact sheet provides information about the current state of knowledge regarding mycotoxins in Florida perennial grass pastures. Written by Marcelo Wallau, Brittany Justesen, Ann Blount, Luiz Ferraretto, Glen Aiken, and Aaron Stam, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, August 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag422

Clearing Up Charitable Giving

Money changing hands. Photo taken 08-02-17.

Life is filled with uncertainty. When disasters or hard times arise, individuals often become vulnerable and feel helpless and confused. After the initial shock, people start to wonder how they can help. When we feel moved to donate, we should take steps to confirm that our gifts are going exactly where we intended them to go. This 3-page fact sheet discusses impulse giving, ways to avoid it, phone solicitations, mail fraud, resources for accurate information on charitable organizations, and steps to take if one falls victim to a scam. Written by Lynda Spence, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, August 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1479