Mycotoxins in Florida Pastures

Beef cattle feeding in pasture.

Beef cattle producers in Florida have expressed concerns about the potential presence of mycotoxins in summer perennial forages. In other regions of the US, mycotoxins in forage crops have caused productivity and economic losses. This 3-page fact sheet provides information about the current state of knowledge regarding mycotoxins in Florida perennial grass pastures. Written by Marcelo Wallau, Brittany Justesen, Ann Blount, Luiz Ferraretto, Glen Aiken, and Aaron Stam, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, August 2018.

Riesgos Comunes a Considerar Durante la Manufactura de Alimentos para Caballos

Horses feeding at the Horse Teaching Unit in Gainesville. UF/IFAS photo by Eric Zamora

El decreto de Modernización de la Seguridad Alimentaria (FSMA por sus siglas en inglés) fue firmado en Enero del 2011. Dicho documento intenta cambiar el enfoque de la seguridad alimentaria hacia prevención en lugar de reacción ante eventos relacionados con alimentos. Determinar si un peligro requiere un control preventivo depende de la frecuencia y la gravedad del peligro, el cual varía de acuerdo a la instalación y la especie alimentada. This 5-page fact sheet is the Spanish version of EDIS document AN344, Common Hazards to Consider During Manufacturing of Feeds for Horses. Written by Ana Margarita Arias, Taylor N. Langford, Carissa Wickens, Lori Warren, and Jason M. Scheffler, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, July 2018.

Common Hazards to Consider During Manufacturing of Feeds for Horses

Horses feeding at the Horse Teaching Unit in Gainesville. UF/IFAS photo by Eric Zamora

Horses are uniquely sensitive to fumonisin and ionophores compared to other livestock species. Facilities, particularly mixed-species feed facilities, need to ensure CGMPs, SOPs, and possibly preventive controls are implemented to address those concerns in addition to more general hazards. This 5-page fact sheet discusses common biological, chemical, and physical hazards in horse feeds as well as methods of prevention. Written by Jason M. Scheffler, Taylor N. Langford, Carissa Wickens, and Lori Warren, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, June 2018.

Frost Damage of Carinata Grown in the Southeastern US

More severe cold damage of carinata during early bolting. This level of damage is expected to reduce stands and yield. Note that aboveground tissue was severely affected, but neither the growing points nor roots died. This field generally grew back from the growing point, but could have resprouted at the crown if the damage was more severe. UF/IFAS West Florida Research and Education Center, Jay, FL.

Brassica carinata is an annual oilseed crop used for the commercial production of jet fuel. One of the challenges to commercialization of this crop in the southeastern United States has been frost damage. This 4-page fact sheet discusses symptomology and ways to minimize risk of frost damage to carinata. Written by Michael J. Mulvaney, Ramdeo Seepaul, Ian Small, David Wright, Silvana Paula-Moraes, Carl Crozier, Paul Cockson, Brian Whipker, and Ramon Leon, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, May 2018.

Common Hazards to Consider During Manufacturing of Feed for Beef and Dairy Cattle

Dairy cows feeding at the Shenandoah Dairy Farm. Cow, feed, milk production. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

This 6-page document provides a list of common hazards to consider in the manufacturing of cattle feeds. It discusses the importance of preventing hazards, methods of prevention, and common physical, biological, and chemical hazards. Written by Taylor Langford, Matthew Hersom, Luiz Ferraretto, Antonio Faciola, Chad Carr, and Jason Scheffler, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, March 2018.

Food Safety on the Farm: Good Agricultural Practices and Good Handling Practices-Worker Health and Hygiene

The ‘Food Safety on the Farm’ series is a collection that reviews the generally recognized principles of GAPs (good agricultural practices) as they relate to produce, primarily at the farm level and with particular focus on fresh Florida crops and practices. This 4-page publication focuses on GAPs and GHPs (good handling practices) relating specifically to worker health and hygiene. Written by Jessica A. Lepper, Keith R. Schneider, Renee M. Goodrich-Schneider, and Aswathy Sreedharan and published by the UF/IFAS Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, December 2017.

Worker Protection Standard: Determining Your WPS Responsibilities

A single-nozzle backpack sprayer is useful for foliar treatment of many woody invasive plants.

In 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a comprehensive regulation called the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides (WPS). The EPA has made several changes to the WPS since it was fully implemented in 1995. This five-page document will address determining responsibilities under the revised WPS. Written by Frederick M. Fishel and published by UF’s Agronomy Department, September 2017.

Cressleaf Groundsel (Butterweed) Identification and Management in Pastures

Butterweed flowers.Butterweed is a winter annual that is toxic to both cattle and horses. This 2-page fact sheet provides an overview of the plant as well as herbicide recommendations. Written by Brent Sellers and Jay Ferrell, and published by the UF Agronomy Department, May 2016.

El Zika, un Virus Transmitido por Mosquitos

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Zika es un virus transmitido por mosquitos que se ha esparcido recientemente en regiones tropicales y ha causado epidemias, especialmente durante los últimos 8 o 9 años. En su ámbito nativo en África Occidental y Uganda, el virus se mantiene en los bosques, circulando entre mosquitos que viven en huecos de árboles y primates arbóreos; las infecciones de humanos se consideran incidentales y de poca importancia médica. Una cepa del virus que se implicó en brotes en Polinesia Francesa emergió en el Norte de Brasil en el 2015 y causó gran consternación debido a la alta incidencia de microcefalia en bebes nacidos de madres que fueron infectadas con el virus durante la gestación. Transmisión local, principalmente por el mosquito de la fiebre amarilla Aedes aegypti, ha sido documentada en la mayoría de los países tropicales de las Américas, pero aún no se ha detectado en Los Estados Unidos Continentales. Los síntomas de la infección incluyen, salpullido, dolor de cabeza, fiebre, dolor muscular y en las coyunturas, conjuntivitis, y malestar general.
This 7-page fact sheet written by J. R. Rey, L. P. Lounibos, B. W. Alto, N. D. Burkett-Cadena, C. C. Lord, C. T. Smartt, and C. R. Connelly and published by the Department of Entomology and Nematology is the Spanish language version of Zika, a Mosquito-Transmitted Virus and describes the Zika microbe, its mosquito hosts, and the disease it causes. A history of the virus and its migration are included, along with some details about the virus in the state of Florida and preventative measures people can take to avoid infection. The best way to avoid contracting Zika (and other mosquito-borne diseases) is not to get bitten in the first place. Take precautions to avoid mosquito bites.

Smart Strawberry Advisory System for Mobile Devices

Freshly harvested strawberries.Like the web-based SAS, the SAS: Strawberry Advisory System mobile app monitors real-time and forecast weather conditions that increase the risk for Botrytis (gray mold) and anthracnose fruit rots, providing risk level information for each disease. The app provides easy access to the information growers need to make spraying decisions in the field, saving them time, helping improve disease control, and avoiding unnecessary fungicide applications. This 3-page fact sheet provides an overview of the SAS mobile app. Written by Clyde W. Fraisse, Natalia Peres, and José Henrique Andreis, and published by the UF Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, August 2015.

Florida Biosolids: Management and Land Application Rules

Class AA biosolids (black colored granules) land-applied to a corn field prior to planting.Biosolids are the liquid, semisolid, and solid fractions of the treated waste stream from a domestic wastewater treatment facility (WWTF). On August 29, 2010, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) formally adopted its rule for the management of wastewater biosolids, Chapter 62-640, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C. 2010). This 6-page fact sheet from the Florida Biosolids series covers applicability of the rule, the intent of Chapter 62-640, F.A.C., land application requirements, biosolids storage, cumulative application limits, setback distances, pH, soil depth, runoff prevention, additional application site restrictions for Class B biosolids, NMPs, and special geographic areas. Written by John Hallas, Cheryl L. Mackowiak, and Ann C. Wilkie, and published by the UF Department of Soil and Water Science, October 2015.

The Cost of Food Safety

Ground beef.This new publication discusses the costs and long-term benefits associated with the implementation of food safety programs. This 5-page fact sheet covers the history of HACCP, costs associated with the application of food safety programs, reasons to improve food safety, and the financial impact of foodborne illnesses. Written by Annelys Hessing, Renée Goodrich Schneider, Alan Gutierrez, Rachael Silverberg, Michael S. Gutter, and Keith R. Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, October 2015.

First Aid for Pesticide Exposure

Pesticide testing.
Pesticide poisoning is a commonly under-diagnosed illness. This five-page fact sheet describes how to recognize the early symptoms of pesticide exposure and provide basic first aid for the treatment of victims. This fact sheet explains how to provide initial treatment in the case of pesticide exposure on the skin, in the eye, through inhalation, and in the mouth or swallowed. Written by Frederick M. Fishel, and published by the Agronomy Department.

Risk Management for 4-H Youth Development Work: Large Animals: Livestock

Beef Cattle at the Straughn Extension Professional Development Center and at the Horse Teaching Unit. Livestock, cows. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.Most people involved in youth livestock exhibition are familiar with the physical risks of handling and transporting livestock, but public spectators generally need more instruction and supervision to ensure their safety and health. The Risk Management for 4-H Youth Development Work series aims to provide UF/IFAS Extension county faculty, staff, volunteers, and youth with the knowledge they need to implement best practices in risk management strategies. This 8-page fact sheet covers risks in the following categories: injuries to people, injuries to animals, property damage, biosecurity (diseases transmitted to humans and between animals), and general precautions. Written by Chad Carr, Saundra TenBroeck, Wendy DeVito, Chris Strong, Dale Pracht, and Georgene Bender, and published by the UF Department of Animal Sciences, November 2015.

Avian Diseases Transmissible to Humans

A "please wash your hands" sign affixed to chicken cages at the poultry exhibit during the 4H Livestock show. Chickens, eggs, farm livestock, hygiene, safety.Anyone who keeps birds, whether as pets or as production animals, should be aware that certain avian diseases can be transmitted to humans. The seriousness of the disease in humans varies with human hosts’ age, overall health, and immune status as well as virulence of the organism, infective dose, and route of infection. This 4-page fact sheet is a major revision which discusses causes and symptoms of avian influenza (bird flu), chlamydiosis, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, encephalitis viruses, avian tuberculosis, Newcastle Disease, and cryptosporidiosis. Written by Michael A. Davis, Gary D. Butcher, and F. Ben Mather, and published by the UF Department of Animal Sciences, revised August 2015. Original publication date: August 1997.

Survival of Foodborne Pathogens on Berries

handfull of various berriesFresh and frozen berries are popular foods. When berries are picked for fresh consumption, they are usually packed directly without washing because they are highly perishable. There is typically no “kill step” that would eliminate pathogens on fresh or frozen berries. Foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh or frozen berries that were contaminated with pathogenic viruses, parasites, or bacteria. Contamination can occur before or during harvest or during final preparation. This 11-page fact sheet was written by Mary Palumbo, Linda J. Harris, and Michelle D. Danyluk, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, November 2014.

The Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 – Proposed Rule for Preventive Controls for Human Food

President Barack Obama signs H.R. 2751, the “FDA Food Safety Modernization Act,” in the Oval Office, Jan. 4, 2011.  (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), which was signed into law by President Obama on January 4, 2011, is the most sweeping reform of food safety laws in more than 70 years since the enactment of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938. High-profile foodborne outbreaks in the last decade and their impact on public health and the economy have exposed the need for a new, modern food safety system. FSMA aims to ensure the safety and security of the US food supply by focusing on preventing food safety problems rather than responding after they occur. This law provides the FDA with new enforcement authorities to achieve a higher rate of compliance with food safety standards and to respond better to problems. This 5-page fact sheet was written by Soohyoun Ahn, Keith R. Schneider, Michelle D. Danyluk, and Renee Goodrich-Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, April 2014.

There Is a Safety App for That! – Some Useful Agricultural Safety Apps

AE498An estimated 58 billion apps will be downloaded to smartphones and 14 billion to tablets in 2013. This 4-page fact sheet explores key features in smartphones and some available apps that can enhance the safety of agricultural operations. The apps presented represent a small fraction of the apps available on various platforms. Written by Michael T. Jensen, and published by the UF Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, August 2013.

Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Juices, 1922 to 2010 (FSHN1204/FS188)

Salmonella species on X.L.D. agarThe FDA has recently mandated that all 100% fruit/vegetable juices sold wholesale be produced under a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. As part of their HACCP plan, juice processors must identify and meet a target for reduction of the most resistant microorganism of public health significance that is likely to occur in the juice. This 7-page fact sheet aids juice processors in the identification of these “pertinent microorganisms,” and reviews the locations of juice preparations and severity of juice-associated outbreaks. Written by M. D. Danyluk, R. M. Goodrich-Schneider, K. R. Schneider, L. J. Harris, and R. W. Worobo, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, January 2012.

ENY141S/IN864 Cómo Lidiar con Abejas Africanas: Una Guía Práctica

ENY141S, a 4-page fact sheet by M. K. O’Malley, J. D. Ellis, Pablo Herrera and A. S. Neal, is the Spanish language version of ENY-141/IN739 What to do about African Honey Bees: A Consumer Guide. It provides information about Africanized honey bees (AHB), which have been labeled ”killer” bees, steps people can take to avoid negative interactions, how to handle stings, and bee-proofing basics. Published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, August 2010.