The raw foods diet has its roots in a vegetarian movement dating back to the 1800s. As the name implies, a raw foods diet is a dietary pattern composed of mostly or completely raw, unprocessed foods. This new 3-page publication of the UF/IFAS Food Science and Human Nutrition Department explores the potential health benefits and risks of a raw foods diet. Written by Alexa Barad, Daniela Rivero-Mendoza, and Wendy Dahl.
Cyclosporiasis is an intestinal illness caused by the microscopic parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. People can become infected with Cyclospora by consuming food or water contaminated with the parasite. People living or traveling in countries where cyclosporiasis is endemic may be at increased risk for infection. This 6-page publication is part of the Preventing Foodborne Illness series and describes symptoms and strategies for cyclosporiasis prevention for farmers, restaurants and retailers, and consumers. This major revision was written by Christopher R. Pabst, Jaysankar De, Renée Goodrich-Schneider, and Keith R. Schneider and published by the UF/IFAS Food Science and Human Nutrition Department.
Vibrio vulnificus occurs naturally in warm brackish and saltwater environments. During the warmer months, this bacterium can reach particularly high concentrations in filter-feeding shellfish that inhabit coastal waters. Foodborne illness from V. vulnificus is almost exclusively associated with consumption of raw oysters. This 3-page fact sheet is a major revision that discusses risk of infection, times to seek medical treatment, symptoms, activities related to illness, foods commonly associated with the bacterium, handling and storage of seafood and shellfish, and methods of prevention. Written by Anita C. Wright, Renée M. Goodrich, Michael A. Hubbard, and Keith R. Schneider, and published by the UF Food Science and Human Nutrition Department. Original publication date: July 2009. Revised October 2015.
This new publication discusses the costs and long-term benefits associated with the implementation of food safety programs. This 5-page fact sheet covers the history of HACCP, costs associated with the application of food safety programs, reasons to improve food safety, and the financial impact of foodborne illnesses. Written by Annelys Hessing, Renée Goodrich Schneider, Alan Gutierrez, Rachael Silverberg, Michael S. Gutter, and Keith R. Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, October 2015.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a naturally occurring bacterium that inhabits coastal brackish marine waters throughout the world and is commonly found in the United States and Canada. If ingested in sufficient numbers, this bacterium can cause illness such as gastroenteritis with symptoms such as cramps, vomiting, and nausea. Illnesses linked with this organism are usually associated with the consumption of raw or improperly cooked seafood, particularly raw oysters. This 3-page fact sheet is a major revision that discusses Vibrio parahaemolyticus, illness caused by the bacterium, factors that increase risk of infection, methods of infection, seafood and shellfish handling recommendations, and prevention. Written by Anita C. Wright, Renée M. Goodrich, Michael A. Hubbard, and Keith R. Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition. Original publication date: July 2009. Revised October 2015.
Ingesting foods contaminated with Bacillus cereus bacteria can lead to nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Though B. cereus is commonly found in many types of fresh and processed foods, proper cooking, handling, and storage can minimize the risk of contamination. This 5-page fact sheet explains how B. cereus is transmitted, what foods it is commonly associated with, the methods used to prevent contamination, and good practices for receiving, handling, processing, and storing food. Written by Keith R. Schneider, Renée Goodrich Schneider, and Rachael Silverberg, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, August 2015.
If you have ever had the stomach flu, norovirus was likely the culprit. Norovirus is the most common cause of foodborne illness in the United States and is transmitted through direct person-to-person contact or contaminated objects and food. This 5-page fact sheet covers how norovirus is spread, foods associated with norovirus, symptoms of infection, who is at risk, as well proper sanitation methods for preventing the spread of norovirus. Written by Rachael Silverberg, Melissa K. Jones, Renée Goodrich Schneider, Aswathy Sreedharan and Keith R. Schneider, and published by the UF Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, June 2015.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a microscopic, spore-forming, intestinal protozoan parasite and a known cause of the gastrointestinal infection cyclosporiasis, often referred to as “traveler’s diarrhea” for its prevalence among visitors to regions where the species is endemic. These organisms have a protective covering that makes them resistant to disinfectants and that gives Cyclospora the ability to survive outside of hosts for extended periods. The incidence of cyclosporiasis has been increasing worldwide, with several documented cases in the United States and Canada. This 4-page fact sheet was written by Keith R. Schneider, Rachael Silverberg, Susie Richardson, and Renée Goodrich Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, March 2015. (Photo: CDC/DPDx – Melanie Moser)
Durante la última década, las frutas, verduras y frutos secos se encuentran entre los alimentos relacionados con brotes de gastroenteritis causadas por cepas enterovirulentas de E. coli y Salmonella no tifoidea que resultan en miles de hospitalizaciones y pérdidas de varios millones de dólares en la industria de alimentos (Mandrell 2009; Batz, Hoffman, y Morris 2011). Desde 2006, dieciséis brotes de salmonelosis se han relacionado con el consumo de frutas y verduras, incluyendo tomates, melones, coles, pepinos, mangos, piñones, pistachos, mantequilla de maní, papayas, pimientos y además alimentos congelados y procesados que contienen productos vegetales. Esta hoja informativa fue producida para proveer información actualizada sobre las prácticas de producción de tomate y sus asociaciones con Salmonella. Esta información es útil para Agentes de Extensión Agraria en sus programas de educación sobre cultivos hortícolas. This 4-page fact sheet is the Spanish language version of The Role of Crop Production Practices and Weather Conditions in Microbiological Safety of Tomatoes and Peppers (SS628). It was written by Massimiliano Marvasi, Max Teplitski, and George Hochmuth, and published by the UF Department of Soil and Water Science, February 2015.
Salmonella and other human pathogens can contaminate produce at any stage from “farm to fork.” If we can better understand how production practices may make crops more or less susceptible to human pathogens we may be able to significantly reduce the number and severity of the produce-associated outbreaks. This 3-page fact sheet provides up-to-date information about tomato production practices and their relationships with Salmonella. Written by Massimiliano Marvasi, George Hochmuth, and Max Teplitski, and published by the UF Department of Soil and Water Science, December 2014. (Photo: Max Teplitski, UF/IFAS)
Clostridium botulinum is ubiquitous in nature, often found in soil and water. The bacteria and spores alone do not cause disease, but they produce the botulinum toxin that causes botulism, a serious paralytic condition that can lead to death. Although it is one of the least common of the foodborne diseases, anyone is susceptible even with the ingestion of only a small amount of toxin present in contaminated food. Immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly individuals may suffer from more serious symptoms. This 6-page fact sheet was written by Keith R. Schneider, Rachael Silverberg, Alexandra Chang and Renée Goodrich Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, December 2014.
Despite the manner in which they are prepared, melons are commonly consumed raw without a processing step which would eliminate pathogenic bacteria. For those concerned about the safety of melons, including cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, this 6-page fact sheet lists outbreaks associated with melons in the United States, Canada, and Europe, along with information about the location, pathogen, and incidence of illness. Written by Michelle D. Danyluk, Rachel McEgan, Ashley N. Turner, and Keith R. Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, November 2014. (UF/IFAS Photo by Thomas Wright)
This is one in a series of fact sheets discussing common foodborne pathogens of interest to food handlers, processors, and retailers. This 5-page fact sheet was written by Keith R. Schneider, Renée Goodrich-Schneider, Michael A. Hubbard, and Susanna Richardson, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, January 2014.
Since honey is a potential and avoidable source of Clostridium botulinum spores, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatricsm and the National Honey Board recommend that honey not be given to infants younger than 12 months of age. Honey should not be added to water, food, or formula fed to infants under 12 months of age. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Malcolm T. Sanford, Eddie Atkinson, Jeanette Klopchin, and Jamie Ellis, and published by the UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, June 2013.
Listeriosis is one of several foodborne diseases that are often reported in the scientific and popular press. In the United States, it affects about 1,600 people every year, with about 270 of those cases resulting in death. It expresses itself in the affected person by means of septicemia, meningitis, and/or encephalitis. Pregnant women who have intrauterine or cervical infections caused by L. monocytogenes in their second or third trimesters may spontaneously abort the fetus or produce a stillbirth. Influenza-type symptoms, which may include continuous fever, usually precede the aforementioned disorders. This 4-page fact sheet was written by Keith R. Schneider, Renée Goodrich-Schneider, Michael A. Hubbard, and Susanna Richardson, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, March 2013.
Shigellosis occurs when virulent Shigella organisms are consumed and invade the intestinal mucosa, resulting in tissue destruction. Most Shigella infections are spread by stools or soiled fingers of an infected person to the mouth of another person when basic hygiene and handwashing are not properly done. This 5-page fact sheet was written by Keith R. Schneider, Soohyoun Ahn, and Renée M. Goodrich-Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, July 2012.
Over 800,000 cases per year of diarrheal disease in the United States were linked to Campylobacter, being ranked No. 4 in the pathogens causing foodborne illnesses. Campylobacter is also responsible for 15% of foodborne illness-related hospitalizations, and 6% of foodborne illness-related deaths. This 5-page fact sheet was written by Soohyoun Ahn, Renée M. Goodrich-Schneider, and Keith R. Schneider, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, July 2012.
Concerned about the safety of fresh-market tomatoes? This 5-page fact sheet highlights tomato-related outbreaks in the United States and Europe and reviews the locations and venues of tomato preparations as well as the severity of outbreaks. Written by Angela M. Valadez, Keith R. Schneider, and Michelle D. Danyluk, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, May 2012.
The FDA has recently mandated that all 100% fruit/vegetable juices sold wholesale be produced under a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. As part of their HACCP plan, juice processors must identify and meet a target for reduction of the most resistant microorganism of public health significance that is likely to occur in the juice. This 7-page fact sheet aids juice processors in the identification of these “pertinent microorganisms,” and reviews the locations of juice preparations and severity of juice-associated outbreaks. Written by M. D. Danyluk, R. M. Goodrich-Schneider, K. R. Schneider, L. J. Harris, and R. W. Worobo, and published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, January 2012.
Revised! FSHN03-5, a 3-page fact sheet by Keith R. Schneider, Renée Goodrich-Schneider, Michael A. Hubbard, and Dirk M. Sampath, provides food handlers, processors, and retailers information about foodborne illnesses caused by this Gram-postive bacterial pathogen that thrives in improperly stored meat and meat-products. Includes references. Published by the UF Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, April 2010.