Common Hazards to Consider During Manufacturing of Feeds for Horses

Horses feeding at the Horse Teaching Unit in Gainesville. UF/IFAS photo by Eric Zamora

Horses are uniquely sensitive to fumonisin and ionophores compared to other livestock species. Facilities, particularly mixed-species feed facilities, need to ensure CGMPs, SOPs, and possibly preventive controls are implemented to address those concerns in addition to more general hazards. This 5-page fact sheet discusses common biological, chemical, and physical hazards in horse feeds as well as methods of prevention. Written by Jason M. Scheffler, Taylor N. Langford, Carissa Wickens, and Lori Warren, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, June 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an344

Brunswickgrass or Paspalum nicorae: A Weed Contaminant in Southern Pastures and Bahiagrass Seed Production Fields

Closely grazed bahiagrass pasture with patches of brunswickgrass in late September (toward the end of the growing season) in Levy County, FL.

Brunswickgrass (Paspalum nicorae Parodi) is becoming a problematic weed in summer perennial grass pastures in the Southeast. The plant is competitive with bahiagrass
and bermudagrass. Since it is less palatable, it can eventually dominate a perennial grass pasture. Brunswickgrass has become naturalized and has reportedly contaminated bahiagrass seed fields and pastures in the southeastern states, including some of the important counties for seed production in Florida, such as Gilchrist, Levy, Alachua, Citrus, and Sumter. This 4-page fact sheet provides an overview of brunswickgrass and discusses its appearance, variety/germplasm, and management. Written by Ann Blount, Marcelo Wallau, Brent Sellers, Dennis Hancock, Leanne Dillard, Jose Dubeux, Cheryl Mackowiak, Joao Vendramini, and Clay Cooper, and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, April 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag408

Common Hazards to Consider During Manufacturing of Feed for Beef and Dairy Cattle

Dairy cows feeding at the Shenandoah Dairy Farm. Cow, feed, milk production. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

This 6-page document provides a list of common hazards to consider in the manufacturing of cattle feeds. It discusses the importance of preventing hazards, methods of prevention, and common physical, biological, and chemical hazards. Written by Taylor Langford, Matthew Hersom, Luiz Ferraretto, Antonio Faciola, Chad Carr, and Jason Scheffler, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, March 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an343

Economic Feasibility of Cooling Dry Cows: Findings and Spreadsheet

A cow in a stockade at a small dairy farm.

The negative effects of heat stress in lactating cows are well known, but only recent studies have explored those effects along with the full benefits of cooling dry cows. Recent work at the University of Florida has demonstrated the benefits of dry cow cooling on calf performance and cow health in the next lactation. This 5-page fact sheet discusses the economic losses from milk production due to heat stress, investment, utilities, maintenance, and feasibility analysis. Written by Fernanda Ferreira, Geoffrey Dahl, and Albert De Vries, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, March 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an342

The Florida Bull Test 2016-2017

Closeup of a bull.

The 17th annual Florida Bull Test Sale was held on January 21, 2017 at the conclusion of the 2016-2017 Florida Bull Test. The test evaluated the performance potential and breeding soundness of bulls consigned to the program at the UF/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center (NFREC). This new 9-page fact sheet discusses test procedures, assessment of feed efficiency, test rules and regulations, health requirements, and test results. Written by Luara B. Canal, G. Cliff Lamb, and Nicolas DiLorenzo, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, February 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an341

Effective Use of Genomics in Commercial Dairy Farms

Closeup of a bull.

Genomic selection refers to selection decisions based on genomic-estimated breeding values. These genomic breeding values are calculated using genetic markers across the entire genome. This technology has revolutionized dairy cattle breeding globally. This new 4-page fact sheet discusses the effects of genomics on dairy sire selection. Written by Francisco Peñagaricano, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, February 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an340

Risk Management for 4-H Youth Development Work: Large Animals-Horses

This 13-page publication is one in the series Risk Management for 4-H Youth Development Work. It addresses the risks involving horses at 4-H events. Written by Saundra TenBroeck, Wendy DeVito, Dale Pracht, Chad Carr, Brittani Kirkland, and Georgene Bender and published by the UF/IFAS 4-H Youth Development Department, February 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/4h383

How Much Does Bad Hay Cost a Beef Cattle Producer?

Hay bales in a field.

Everyone likes a good bargain, but when it comes to hay, low price often equates to low nutritional value. Because hay is often sold on a large round-bale basis, savings from the good bargain can decrease substantially if there is a negative impact on the cow herd nutritional program. This 4-page fact sheet discusses intake limitations, energy limitations, protein limitations, examples of hay quality, and bad hay’s impact on cow body condition. Written by Matt Hersom and Todd Thrift, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, February 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an339

Economic Value of Genetic Merit of Dairy Semen

Closeup of a bull.

Attempts to calculate the economic value of semen have been made since at least the 1970s. The basic calculations have since become available (Dechow 2016). This new 3-page fact sheet reviews these calculations, adds a few other considerations, and offers estimates of the worth of the genetics of dairy semen. Written by Albert De Vries, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, January 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an338

Basic Concepts of Dairy Sire Selection

Closeup of a bull.

Sire selection is one of the most important decisions that a dairy producer makes. It represents a great opportunity to improve the profitability of the dairy production enterprise. This new 3-page fact sheet reviews some key concepts that should be considered in order to make proper selection decisions and discusses alternative methods for selecting sires based on multiple traits. Written by Francisco Peñagaricano, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, January 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an337

Nutrition at Early Stages of Life Determines the Future Growth and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Calves

A dairy calf. Photo taken 04-01-17.

For a calf, nutrition during the first few months of its life may permanently change the way organs develop and then have long-term consequences. The concept that metabolic imprinting may permanently affect animal development has substantial economic implications for agriculture. This 6-page fact sheet summarizes some of the research conducted in calf nutrition and its impact on the growth and reproductive performance of dairy calves. Written by Philipe Moriel and Luiz Ferraretto, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, December 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an336

Micronutrients Considerations for Warm-Season Forage Grass Systems in Florida

Warm-season grasses are vital to livestock production systems and dominate ground cover in tropical and subtropical areas. The objective of this 7-page publication is to provide basic information about the role of micronutrients in warm-season grass production systems in Florida. Written by Jane C. Griffin, Joao Vendramini, Diane Rowland, and Maria L. Silveira and published by the UF/IFAS Agronomy Department, November 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag419

Nutrition at Early Stages of Life Determines the Future Growth and Reproductive Performance of Beef Calves

Two mother cows with calves at the Range Cattle Research Station in Ona, FL. These beef cows are all at least 3/4 Angus. They are part of an attempt to create a white Angus breed. During the summer the white cows, coined "white Angus" by the researchers in Ona, have a body temperature that is one degree cooler than the traditional black Angus. UF/IFAS Photo: Sally Lanigan.Nutrition can influence future health and performance of calves. The metabolic imprinting concept has substantial economic implications for animal agriculture, and it should be explored to improve the performance of animals bred for food production. This 6-page fact sheet summarizes some of the research conducted in beef calf nutrition and nutritional impact on growth and reproductive performance of beef calves. Written by Philipe Moriel, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Animal Sciences, October 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an335

Additional Nutritional Considerations for Preconditioning Beef Calves

Little bull with two calves in field, beef cows. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas WrightFeed ingredient selection is not the only factor to consider during a preconditioning process. Recent studies demonstrated that diet composition and frequency of supplementation can have positive or negative effects on calf performance during preconditioning. This 7-page fact sheet focuses on the ways beef cattle producers can modify the nutritional composition of diets and frequency of concentrate supplementation to optimize growth and immunity of preconditioning beef calves or prevent detrimental effects. Written by Philipe Moriel, and published by the UF Department of Animal Sciences, September 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an334

Genetic Selection for Gaits in the Horse

Quality and cadence of various locomotion patterns are extremely valuable traits in horses. Breeds like the Tennessee Walking Horse, Florida Cracker Horse, Mangalarga marchador, and Icelandic Pony are prized and selected for unique intermediate-speed locomotion patterns. What if genetics could help us unravel and better select for the locomotion patterns of our horses? This 4-page fact sheet discusses the connection between locomotion patterns and genetics, DMRT3 and locomotion in the horse, improvement of understanding of the gene function of DMRT3, and current as well as future applications. Written by Laura Patterson Rosa, Carissa Wickens, and Samantha A. Brooks, and published by the UF Department of Animal Sciences, May 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an332

Galloping into the Future: Genetic Tips and Tools for the Horse Owner

This 4-page fact sheet discusses the equine genome, determining the genotype of a horse, breeding for certain traits, and the future of genetic tools. Written by Laura Patterson Rosa, Carissa Wickens, and Samantha A. Brooks, and published by the UF Department of Animal Sciences, May 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an333

Utilization of Biosolids in Forage Production Systems in Florida

UF/IFAS professor George O'Connor holds up a handful from a pile of biosolids with forage range in the background.

This four-page publication provides basic information about land application of biosolids to pastures and hayfields in Florida. The information contained in this document should be of interest to stakeholders, biosolids managers, students, and scientists interested in topics related to biosolids management practices and the potential benefits and risks associated with biosolid land application. Written by Maria L. Silveira, George A. O’Connor, and Joao M.B. Vendramini and published by the Department of Soil and Water Sciences.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss658

Rumen Protozoa: The Animals within the Cow

view of cattle crowded in an enclosure, one cow with ear tag facing reader over backs of two other cows Credit: Tyler Jones, UF/IFAS

As a cow ambles around and eats from the feed bunk, legions of other “animals” are feeding within the cow’s rumen. Billions of protozoa swim about in a single, 20-gallon rumen, colliding with one another while engulfing feed particles and bacteria. These microbes contribute vitally to rumen fermentation and have both positive and negative impacts on animal performance. This 4-page fact sheet discusses classification, activities, removal, and impacts of protozoa. Written by Timothy J. Hackmann, and published by the UF Department of Animal Sciences, January 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an331

Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes) in Farmed White-Tailed Deer

A fawn at a private deer farm. Photo by Tyler Jones taken on 10-13-15

Trueperella is a harmless bacterium in intestinal tracts of ruminants like deer, cattle, and pigs, but if it migrates out of the intestine to other areas of an animal’s body and proliferates, it can make the animal sick. Trueperella causes many problems in deer, including lesions, abscesses, and pneumonia, and it is one of the types of bacteria that is known to contribute to the disease lumpy jaw. In young fawns, it is a common cause of death. This 3-page fact sheet written by Kathryn D. Pothier, Katherine A. Sayler, and Samantha M. Wisely and published by the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation explains how to spot and treat trueperella, or, better yet, prevent it in the first place.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw427

The Florida Bull Test 2015-2016

Closeup of a bull.

The 16th annual Florida Bull Test Sale was held on January 16, 2016 at the conclusion of the 2015–2016 Florida Bull Test. The test evaluated the performance potential and breeding soundness of bulls consigned to the program at the UF/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center (NFREC). This 10-page fact sheet covers the test procedures, assessment of feed efficiency, general policies and procedures, health requirements, test results, and sale summary. Written by Carla D. Sanford, G. Cliff Lamb, and Nicolas DiLorenzo, and published by the UF Department of Animal Sciences, November 2016.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an328