Production of Edible Flowers in Florida

Edible flowers can be a fresh addition to main dishes, side dishes, desserts, and drinks. Their value stems from their visual appeal, taste, nutritional content, and medicinal properties. This 7-page document examines the production and distribution of edible flowers in Florida. Written by Caroline de Favari Tardivo and Geoffrey Meru and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, August 2018.

English Ivy (Hedera helix): Identification and Control of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Production and in Landscapes

English ivy has grown in popularity over the last few years as both an indoor and outdoor ornamental vining plant. While English ivy is very disease resistant, there are a few major diseases that will cause economic loss in production and landscape plantings. This 6-page document will assist residential or commercial property owners in identifying various English ivy diseases. Written by David J. Norman and G. Shad Ali and published by the UF/IFAS Plant Pathology Department, August 2018.

Rose Mosaic Virus: A Disease Caused by a Virus Complex and Symptoms on Roses and Management Practices

Rose mosaic virus disease is one of the most economically important diseases affecting roses, because a single symptomatic leaf can result in the rejection of complete shipments for wholesale or retail rose producers. It continues to be a problem in nursery production and landscapes. This 5-page document discusses the causes, symptoms, and management of this disease. Written by Susannah da Silva, Binoy Babu, Mathews L. Paret, Gary Knox, Fanny Iriarte, Barron Riddle, Matt Orwat, Shawn T. Steed, E. Vanessa Campoverde, and Svetlana Y. Folimonova and published by the UF/IFAS Plant Pathology Department, August 2018.

Sampling Palms for Lethal Yellowing and Texas Phoenix Palm Decline Phytoplasmas

In Florida, palms are an economically important group of trees in the nursery and landscaping industries. Phytoplasma diseases of palms are a major concern because they infect a wide variety of these valuable ornamental palms, and they are lethal. Once symptoms appear, trees begin to decline, frequently rapidly, and can die in as few as 3 to 5 months. This 4-page fact sheet written by Brian W. Bahder and Ericka E. Helmick and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology describes how to sample palms for disease and how to submit samples to the Vector Entomology Lab. Includes a table listing equipment and supplies and protocol for sampling palm trunk tissue.

Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of Boston Fern (Nephrolepsis exaltata ‘Bostoniensis’)

‘Bostoniensis’, or Boston fern, is a popular sword fern variety that is one of the most important foliage crops in the ornamental plant industry. This 5-page article describes common Boston fern cultivars, provides guidelines for their culture and interior use, and lists physiological problems that may be encountered during production and interiorscape use. Written by Bill Schall, Heqiang Huo, and Jianjun Chen and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Environmental Horticulture, January 2018.

Hurricane Preparation List for the Container Nursery

Busy professionals don’t often have time to consider the impact a hurricane can have on their nursery until one is on the way. This 2-page fact sheet provides a list of items and tasks to complete prior to a hurricane’s arrival to minimize damage to the nursery. Written by Tom Yeager and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department, December 2017.

Caladium Cultivars 'Cosmic Delight', 'Fiesta', and 'Hearts Desire'

Caladiums are commonly grown in containers, hanging baskets, or planted directly in the landscape as accent and border plants. New caladium cultivar introductions are important to the Florida caladium industry, the greenhouse/nursery industries, and commercial landscape maintenance companies. The UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center released three new caladium cultivars, ‘Cosmic Delight’, ‘Fiesta’, and ‘Hearts Desire’, in 2015. This 7-page document describes the characteristics, production potential, and performance of these cultivars. Written by Zhanao Deng and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department, December 2017.

Bloomify Red and Bloomify Rose, Two Infertile Lantana camara Cultivars for Production and Use in Florida

Lantana camara is a popular nursery and landscape plant in the United States; however, it is listed as a Category 1 invasive species to Florida due to its ability to hybridize with Florida’s native plant species Lantana depressa. In 2004, the UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center initiated a research program to develop two highly infertile L. camara cultivars, ‘Bloomify Red’ and ‘Bloomify Rose’. This five-page document discusses the production and characteristics of these cultivars. Written by Zhanao Deng and Sandra B. Wilson and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department, October 2017.

Regenerated Sabal/Cabbage Palms (Sabal palmetto): Why and How

Sabal palms are held on a rack for six weeks.Palms are woody monocots characterized by the production of adventitious roots from the base of the trunk. Unlike the woody roots of dicots, such as oaks, gumbo limbo, and sea grapes, palm roots have no secondary thickening. Also, unlike trees, palms are incapable of repairing damage to their trunks. Most importantly, the life of a palm is dependent upon the continued good health of the single growing bud known as the meristem. Thus, if the palm bud is killed, the entire palm or the palm cane will eventually die. This 4-page fact sheet discusses harvesting and transplanting sabal palms, cropped transplants, and regenerated transplants. Written by Stephen H. Brown and Tim Broschat, and published by the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department, September 2017.

Economic Survey of the Environmental Horticulture Industry in Florida in 2015

The characteristics and economic contributions of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida in 2015 were evaluated through mail and internet surveys of industry firms conducted in 2016. The executive summary of the full report, authored by Alan W Hodges, Hayk Khachatryan, Mohammad Rahmani, and Christa D. Court and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Food and Resource Economics, is available here:

Biology and Management of Liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) in Ornamental Crop Production

Liverwort is a common weed problem in production nurseries and greenhouses. This article has been written to help growers identify liverwort, understand its biology, and inform them of ways this weed can be managed in their operation. Written by Chris Marble, Marc S. Frank, Dail Laughinghouse, Shawn Steed, and Nathan Boyd, and published by UF’s Environmental Horticulture Department, September 2017.

Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) Management Program for Ornamental Plants


Silverleaf whitefly is one of the most notorious invasive arthropods worldwide. It feeds on more than 900 plant species and vectors over 100 plant-damaging viruses. This 10-page fact sheet written by Vivek Kumar, Cristi Palmer, Cindy L. McKenzie, and Lance Osborne and published by the Department of Entomology and Nematology provides management recommendations, strategies for detection and scouting, and advice about control measures for this pernicious pest.

Powdery Mildew on Nasturtium in South Florida

Powdery mildew, which is caused by the fungus Leveillua rutae (syn. Oidiopsis haplophylli) on nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.), was found in southwest Florida for the first time in 2015 (Fayette et al. 2016). This two-page fact sheet describes the pathogen, its symptoms, and how to manage it. Written by Pamela D. Roberts, Katherine E. Hendricks, Francesco Di Gioia, Joubert Fayette, and Monica Ozores-Hampton and published by the Plant Pathology Department.

Does Consumers' Awareness Impact Their Purchase Likelihood of Neonic-Free Plants?

bee pollinating citrus flower

Neonicotinoid (neonic) pesticides have been facing intense scrutiny because of their potential role in pollinator insect population declines. Research has shown that insecticide use in general has resulted in $284 million per year in damages to honeybee and pollinator services in the United States. This is especially worrying because food supply would fail to meet increasing global food demand without pollinator insects.

Consumer awareness of neonic pesticides increases the purchase likelihood for plants that are labeled “neonic-free,” and, as consumer awareness of neonics increases, demand for plants may decrease if there is limited availability of neonic-free options. This 5-page fact sheet written by Hayk Khachatryan and Alicia Rihn and published by the Food and Resource Economics Department explains the practical implications for growers, retailers, and policy makers and describes how these stakeholders can benefit from increased awareness of this important new market niche.

Helpful Details for Commercial Propagation of Woody Plant Stem Cuttings

Figure 1. Uppermost recently mature stem cutting is removed by cut just above subtending leaves. The position of the cut results in a cutting that is approximately the desired length. Credits: Tom Yeager, UF/IFAS

This three-page fact sheet provides details that are very important for successful propagation of woody plant stem cuttings, such as sanitation, quality of cuttings, the time of year/day to take cuttings, stem size diameter and length of cutting, location of cuts/terminal bud removal, and environmental conditions. Written by Thomas Yeager and published by the Environmental Horticulture Department.

Biology and Management of Goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) in Ornamental Plant Production

Figure 4. Seed head Credits: Nathan S. Boyd, UF/IFAS

This six-page fact sheet provides information about the biology and management of goosegrass, including preemergence and postemergence control options. Written by Shawn Steed, Christopher Marble, Nathan S. Boyd, Andrew MacRae, and Kiran Fnu and published by the Environmental Horticulture Department.

Biology and Management of Thickhead (Crassocephalum crepidioides) in Ornamental Crop Production

Figure 2. Thickhead cotyledon and first true leaf. Credits: Annette Chandler, UF/IFAS Mid-Florida Research and Education Center

Typically found in shadehouses and shaded areas of nursery production, thickhead grows aggressively in containers and can outcompete nursery crops for water, nutrients, and light. This erect, sparingly branched, herbaceous annual, grows up to 4 feet tall and germinates over a wide range of pH, salt, and temperature conditions. This four-page fact sheet describes thickhead (Crassocephalum crepidioides) and various methods for its control in ornamental crop production. Written by Allison Bechtloff, Shawn Steed, Chris Marble, and Nathan Boyd and published by the Environmental Horticulture Department.

Biology and Management of Pilea microphylla(Artillery weed) in Ornamental Crop Production

Figure 4. Artillery weed in flower. Credits: Annette Chandler, UF/IFAS

This five-page fact sheet describes the biology and management of Pilea microphylla, or artillery weed, for ornamental crop production. Artillery weed occurs primarily in moist, disturbed areas and is thought to be native to South America and parts of North America. It is found throughout Florida. Written by Debalina Saha, Chris Marble, Shawn Steed, and Nathan Boyd and published by the Environmental Horticulture Department.

Fertilization of Field-Grown and Landscape Palms in Florida

   ADD TO LIGHTBOX DOWNLOAD  Description:  Cabbage palms and birds on Lake Okeechobee. Cabbage palm, sabal palm, Sabal palmetto, wading birds, bird, avian, lake, marsh, wetland. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

Palms growing in Florida landscape or field nurseries are subject to a number of potentially serious nutrient deficiencies. This five-page document discusses the prevention and treatment of these deficiencies. Written by Timothy K. Broschat and published by the Environmental Horticulture Department.

Herbicidas Postemergentes para Uso en Ornamentales

Rose specimens infected with rose rosette virus. Photo taken on 10-3-15  Photo Credits:  UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones
This is the Spanish language version of ENH95/WG095 Postemergent Herbicides for Use in Ornamentals Postemergent herbicides are applied directly to weeds. This 5-page fact sheet is largely comprised of two tables: Table one lists postemergent herbicides that can be safely used over the top of some ornamentals when used according to label directions; table 2 lists postemergent herbicides that are registered for use around ornamental plants when applied as a directed spray. Written by E. Vanesssa Campoverde, Chris Marble, and Jeffrey G. Norcini and published by the Environmental Horticulture Department.