Lethal Bronzing Disease (LBD)

Figure 5. Discoloration of the lowest (older) leaves is an early symptom of TPPD in cabbage palm.

Lethal bronzing disease (LBD), formerly Texas Phoenix Palm Decline (TPPD), is a lethal phytoplasma infection of various palm species in the state of Florida. It was first detected in Florida in 2006 and has since spread to 31 different counties and been isolated from 16 different species of palm. This three-page fact sheet describes the pathogen and hosts of LBD, its symptoms, how to diagnose it, and disease management practices. Written by Brian W. Bahder and Ericka Helmick and published by the UF/IFAS Plant Pathology Department, this article is a revision of an earlier fact sheet by Nigel A. Harrison and Monica L. Elliott.

Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) application for control of palm phytoplasmas

oxytetracycline hydrochloride

Phytoplasma diseases of palms are a major threat to the Florida nursery and landscaping industries. Historically, lethal yellowing has killed millions of coconut palms throughout the Caribbean and has been causing decline of over 30 species of palm in Florida since it was introduced to the state in the first half of the 20th century. In 2006, lethal bronzing disease was discovered on the west coast of Florida near Tampa. Currently, the only two management options available for control of phytoplasmas is an aggressive sampling strategy followed by consistent tree removal and injections of oxytetracycline hydrochloride, or OTC. This 2-page fact sheet written by Brian W. Bahder and Ericka E. Helmick and published by the UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department seeks to provide a source of information and instruction on the injection of OTC into palm trunks.

Sampling Palms for Lethal Yellowing and Texas Phoenix Palm Decline Phytoplasmas

In Florida, palms are an economically important group of trees in the nursery and landscaping industries. Phytoplasma diseases of palms are a major concern because they infect a wide variety of these valuable ornamental palms, and they are lethal. Once symptoms appear, trees begin to decline, frequently rapidly, and can die in as few as 3 to 5 months. This 4-page fact sheet written by Brian W. Bahder and Ericka E. Helmick and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology describes how to sample palms for disease and how to submit samples to the Vector Entomology Lab. Includes a table listing equipment and supplies and protocol for sampling palm trunk tissue.