Economic Contributions of the Florida Citrus Industry in 2015/16

Citrus groves around Lake Alfred, Florida. Oranges, fruit, trees. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

This 2-page fact sheet written by Christa D. Court, Alan W. Hodges, Mohammad Rahmani, and Thomas H. Spreen and published by the UF/IFAS Food and Resource Economics Department describes the economic contributions of the citrus industry to the state of Florida in fiscal year 2015/16, updating previous studies for 2012/13 and 2014/15 and previous estimates for the economic impacts of citrus greening disease.
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe1021

Cost of Production for Processed Oranges in Southwest Florida, 2016/17

oranges on the tree with orchard in background

This 5-page fact sheet written by Ariel Singerman and published by the UF/IFAS Food and Resource Economics Department summarizes the cost of production per acre for processed oranges grown in southwest Florida during the 2016/17 season. Typical users of the estimates include growers and consultants, who use them as a benchmark; property appraisers, who use them to compute the taxes for property owners; and researchers, who use the estimates to evaluate the economic feasibility of potential new technologies.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe1038

Cost of Production for Fresh Market Grapefruit Grown in Indian River, Florida 2016/17

Grapefruit.

This 5-page fact sheet written by Ariel Singerman and published by the UF/IFAS Food and Resource Economics Department presents the cost of production per acre for growing fresh grapefruit in the Indian River region during 2016/17. Typical users of the estimates include growers and consultants, who use them as a benchmark; property appraisers, who use them to compute the taxes for property owners; and researchers, who use the estimates to evaluate the economic feasibility of potential new technologies.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe1037

Finger Lime: An Alternative Crop with Great Potential in South Florida

finger limes cut open to reveal caviar pulp

Cylindrical Australian finger limes (Microcitrus australasica) taste like a combination of lemon, lime, and grapefruit, come in a rainbow of colors, and have a texture like caviar. Like other citrus fruits, finger limes are nutritious, low in calories, and vitamin-rich. So far in the United States only California grows finger limes commercially, but this 4-page fact sheet written by Aditya Singh, Edward Evans, Jeff Wasielewski, Manjul Dutt, and Jude Grosser and published by the UF/IFAS Food and Resource Economics Department makes the case that exotic, colorful finger limes would likely grow well in Florida, where they would appeal to hoteliers and restaurants and to adventurous, health-conscious consumers on the lookout for a delicious new fresh fruit snack to try.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe1033

Citrus Production Guide: Plant Growth Regulators

Citrus groves around Lake Alfred, Florida. Oranges, fruit, trees. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are a tool used to manipulate vegetative and reproductive growth, flowering, and fruit growth and development. PGRs have been successfully used in agriculture for decades to amend plant growth characteristics to maximize yield and grower profit. This new 4-page fact sheet discusses auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, new classes of plant hormones, use of PGRs for HLB-affected trees, and general considerations for PGR use in Florida citrus groves. Written by Tripti Vashisth, Chris Oswalt, Mongi Zekri, Fernando Alferez, and Jamie D. Burrow, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, February 2018.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1310

Satsuma Mandarin Budget and Profitability Analysis for North Florida

satsuma tree

This 16-page analysis written by Kevin R. Athearn, Peter C. Andersen, Bent V. Brodbeck, Lei Lani L. Davis, Clay Olson, Daniel K. Fenneman, Matthew Lollar, Derek Farnsworth, and Michael Perez and published by the UF/IFAS Food and Resource Economics Department provides research-based information and a description of satsuma mandarin markets, production costs, and potential returns for citrus growers who are considering establishing a satsuma grove in north Florida. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and model for growers to create their own enterprise budgets and make financial projections. An enterprise budget estimates revenues, costs, and net returns for a particular crop or farm enterprise to help growers assess the economic viability and risk of an enterprise, compare enterprises, and evaluate production or marketing changes. The budget and financial analysis may assist prospective and current satsuma growers, agricultural consultants, and lenders with planning and decision making.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe1030

Citrus Tree Care for the Home Gardener in the HLB Era

Since the early 2000s, growing citrus has become much more challenging due to plant disease pressure. HLB is the most devastating disease affecting Florida citrus, and threatens the survival of the citrus industry. This 4-page document describes citrus growth and care while managing the risk of an HLB infection. Written by Jamie D. Burrow, Tripti Vashisth, Megan Dewdney, and Brooke Moffis and published by the UF/IFAS Plant Pathology Department, November 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pp336

Irrigation Management of HLB-Affected Trees

Water is a limiting factor in Florida citrus production due to non-uniform rainfall distribution and the low water-holding capacity of our sandy soils. Because periods of low rainfall coincide with critical stages of citrus production, additional irrigation is necessary to reduce the negative effects of water stress. This 6-page document covers recent findings on water use of trees affected by citrus greening and the impact this would have on irrigation management considerations. Written by Davie Kadyampakeni, Kelly Morgan, Mongi Zekri, Rhuanito Ferrarezi, Arnold Schumann, and Thomas A. Obreza and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Soil and Water Sciences, October 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss659

Canopy Management of Citrus Trees

Tree canopy and bearing volume are two important factors in fruit production and fruit quality; generally, trees with larger canopy volumes produce more fruit than smaller-canopy trees. Therefore, canopy management is an important aspect of citrus production in Florida to avoid problems associated with overcrowding and excessively tall trees. This three-page document describes canopy management practices for citrus growers. Written by Tripti Vashisth, Mongi Zekri, and Fernando Alferez and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, October 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1303

Citrus Propagation

Plant propagation is the art and science of reproducing plants while preserving their unique characteristics from one generation to the next. This 6-page document, written by Ute Albrecht, Mongi Zekri, and Jeffrey Williamson, describes the propagation process for commercial citrus. Published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department, October 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1309

Citrus Production Guide: Rootstock and Scion Selection

Oranges on trees in a grove at the Citrus Research and Education Center. Photo taken on 03/04/16.When preparing for replanting, an important factor to consider is the choice of rootstock. Choosing the right rootstock and scion combination can result in higher economic returns without any additional cost. Rootstocks affect scion vigor, yield, fruit size, juice quality, and pest tolerance. However, tree growth, yield, and fruit quality interact strongly with climate, soil type, tree spacing, and other factors, often producing contradictory reports on rootstock performance in different areas. This 3-page fact sheet discusses soil characteristics, rootstock effects on pests and diseases, tree spacing and size, and rootstock/scion combination. Written by Ute Albrecht, Fernando Alferez, and Mongi Zekri, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Horticultural Sciences, September 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1308

Citrus Irrigation Management

A farmer operating an IFAS-developed mobile app to control citrus irrigation.The chapter on irrigation management of citrus is largely taken from guidelines provided in SL253 on trees prior to Huanglongbing (HLB) prevalent conditions. A section has been added to cover recent findings on water use of trees affected by HLB and the impact this would have on the irrigation management considerations. This 6-page fact sheet discusses water supply, allowable soil water depletion, irrigation scheduling, soil moisture measurement, water budgeting, smartphone apps, irrigation strategies to improve nutrient uptake and reduce leaching, and irrigation management considerations for HLB-affected trees. Written by Davie Kadyampakeni, Kelly Morgan, Mongi Zekri, Rhuanito Ferrarezi, Arnold Schumann, and Thomas Obreza, and published by the UF/IFAS Soil and Water Sciences Department, September 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss660

2017-2018 Florida Citrus Production Guide: Fresh Fruit Pesticide Residue Limits

Grapefruit.

Current citrus production practices often include the use of various chemicals, many of which are pesticides. Chemical residues on the fruit after harvest are a concern to regulators and the public alike because of their potential negative health effects. Therefore, the US and other countries set maximum residue limits (MRLs) on fresh produce for various chemicals. This five-page document is part of the 2017-2018 Florida Citrus Production Guide and discusses the MRLs for various chemicals used on Florida citrus. Written by Mark Ritenour and published by UF’s Horticultural Sciences Department, October 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1301

Fertigation for Citrus Trees

Oranges on trees in a grove at the Citrus Research and Education Center. Photo taken on 03/04/16.

Microirrigation is an important component of citrus production systems in Florida. For citrus trees, microirrigation is more desirable than other irrigation methods for several reasons: water conservation, fertilizer management efficiency, and freeze protection. Research has shown that when microirrigation systems are properly managed, water savings can amount to as much as 80% compared with subirrigation and 50% compared with overhead sprinkler irrigation. Research has also shown the important advantage of microsprinklers for freeze protection of citrus. This 4-page fact sheet discusses fertilizer solubility and some common fertigation materials. It also offers a fertigation summary. Written by Mongi Zekri, Arnold Schumann, Tripti Vashisth, Davie Kadyampakeni, Kelly Morgan, Brian Boman, and Tom Obreza, and published by the UF Horticultural Sciences Department, September 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1306

Grove Planning and Establishment

Orange grove.

Many factors need to be considered when preparing for new tree plantings. Careful planning and preparation is necessary to ensure success and reduce future frustrations. This three-page document describes the factors that contribute to the success of new grove establishment. Written by Mongi Zekri, Ute Albrecht, Christopher Vincent, and Tripti Vashisth and published by UF’s Horticultural Sciences Department, September 2017.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1302

Citrus Under Protective Screen (CUPS) Production Systems

Citrus can be grown under protective screen structures for fresh fruit production in order to completely exclude the Asian citrus psyllid and therefore huanglongbing disease (HLB, citrus greening). The benefits of eliminating HLB are immediate and include rapid, normal tree growth, higher yields of quality fruit, negligible fruit drop, and uncomplicated fertilizer and irrigation requirements. Because CUPS is a relatively new citrus production system with new challenges, current guidelines are preliminary and undergoing constant refinement through research. This summary of concepts, progress, and tentative recommendations from the first three years of CUPS research in Florida written by A. W. Schumann, A. Singerman, A. L. Wright, and R. S. Ferrarezi and published by the Horticultural Sciences Department was condensed from a comprehensive CUPS Quick Start Guide that will be published and updated on the UF/IFAS EDIS website.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1304

Cost of Production for Fresh Grapefruit Grown in Indian River, 2015/16

Grapefruit.

This 4-page article written by Ariel Singerman and published by the Food and Resource Economics Department presents the cost of production per acre for growing fresh grapefruit in the Indian River region during 2015/2016, based on a survey of growers conducted at the Indian River Citrus League production committee meeting in mid-July 2016. The cost estimates do not represent any individual operation; rather, their purpose is to serve as a benchmark for the industry. Typical users of these estimates include growers, consultants, property appraisers, and researchers.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe1011

Citrus Fruit Blemishes and Decay Caused by Fungi and Bacteria

This new one-page citrus identification fact sheet illustrates different blemishes from fungi and bacteria that affect citrus. Written by Mark A. Ritenour, Jamie D. Burrow, Megan M. Dewdney, and John Zhang and published by the Horticultural Sciences Department.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1291

Managing the Health and Productivity of HLB-Affected Groves

Citrus groves around Lake Alfred, Florida. Oranges, fruit, trees.

After years of extensive research from across the world, we still do not have a cure for HLB; however, we have learned a lot about this disease, the plant’s response to the disease, and the disease vector. Based on scientific and observational information gathered in the last decade, a number of tools and strategies are currently available for growers to maintain the health and productivity of HLB-affected trees. This four-page fact sheet will shed light on these currently available horticultural inputs and practices that can be implemented immediately by growers to maintain and improve citrus tree health.Written by Tripti Vashisth and published by the Horticultural Sciences Department.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1288

Citrus Nutrition Management Practices


A new two-page fact sheet has been published by the Horticultural Sciences Department and the UF/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center about citrus nutrition management practices. It was written by J.D. Burrow, T. Vashisth, M. Zekri, S.H. Futch, and A. Schumann.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1292