Harvest Techniques for Hops (Humulus lupulus)

Hop cone formation. Left: newly formed hop burr. Right: mature hop cone.

Hops (Humulus lupulus) are perennial plants commonly harvested for their mature strobiles, also referred to as cones, which are primarily dried and used as a bittering agent and preservative in beer production. The two primary factors of harvest timing and harvest method can have large impacts on the quality and economics of the finished product. The decision of when and how to harvest is important and should rely upon growing-region-specific environmental conditions, physical observations of the cones, and the wants and needs of the individual producer. This new 4-page publication of the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department describes the primary methods used in hop harvesting, including field, indoor, and machine harvesting. Written by Sean Michael Campbell and Brian J. Pearson.

Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea) Flower Extract (BPFE) and Its Use as a pH-Dependent Natural Colorant

BPFE extract at normal pH (blue), lowered pH (green), and raised pH (purple)

Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea), a twining vine native to Southeast Asia, produces deep blue to purple flowers that bloom nearly year-round in ideal conditions. When extracted in a liquid, the addition of a mild acid such as lemon or lime juice turns the naturally deep blue to purple color into a much lighter pink or purple color, giving the extract its color-changing ability. This new 5-page publication of the UF/IFAS Environmental Horticulture Department outlines the use of butterfly pea flower extract (BPFE) as a pH-dependent natural colorant, including an explanation of the science behind the color change, detailed parameters for flower extraction, instructions for storage and processing of the extract as well as a discussion of some of the other benefits of using BPFE. Written by Sean Michael Campbell and Brian Pearson.