School-based programs provide an opportunity to youth who would not be able to participate in traditional 4-H club offerings otherwise. If you want to expand your 4-H program in diversity, subject matter, and/or number of youth reached, school-based programming may be the solution for you. This 6-page document discusses school-based programs, differences between school-based programming and traditional club programming, reasons to start school-based programs, ways to work with school sites, and enrollment for school-based program youth. It is part of the 4-H 101 Fact Sheet series. Written by Vanessa Spero-Swingle and Susan Munyan, and published by the UF/IFAS 4-H Youth Development Department, April 2018.
Whether you call it dietary fiber, fiber, or roughage, eating a diet rich in this food component is good for your health. This 8-page fact sheet provides tips on how to include foods with fiber in your diet. Written by Linda B. Bobroff, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, revised March 2018.
This is the first publication in the Risk Management for 4-H Youth Development Work series. This series is intended to prepare UF/IFAS Extension county faculty, staff, volunteers, and youth for the important task of providing best practices in risk management strategies. This 5-page fact sheet discusses the matrix, levels of risk, probability that something will go wrong, modifications to the event or activity, and post-event assessment. Written by Dale Pracht, Paula Davis, Stefanie Prevatt, Janet Psikogios, Marilyn Norman, Kate Fogarty, and Jean Hink, and published by the UF/IFAS 4-H Youth Development Department, revised March 2018.
Everyone needs folate. It is especially important for women who can become pregnant. Pregnant and nursing women, growing children, and older adults also need plenty of folate. This 2-page fact sheet is a major revision that discusses folate requirements, ways to meet those requirements, and possible effects of folate deficiency. Written by Linda B. Bobroff, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, revised February 2018.
This publication is designed to give you some information about the social, mental, and physical development of your five-year-old child. This new 5-page fact sheet discusses nutrition, eating behaviors, healthy food options, cooking activities, and physical activity. Written by Claire Marie Fassett and Karla P. Shelnutt, and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, January 2018.
If your child has been diagnosed with a wheat allergy, you may be wondering what you will feed him or her, because wheat is an ingredient in so many foods. Learning about ways to manage and treat your child’s allergy can help make this diagnosis less scary. This six-page publication is designed to provide you with information about wheat allergies and tips to help keep your child safe and reaction-free. Written by Pooja Tolani and Gail P.A. Kauwell and published by the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department.
Grandparents have several custody options when they are caring for their grandchildren. To decide which options match your needs, you must become familiar with legal terms. This brochure provides information on custody options, situation scenarios, and legal resources. Written by Larry F. Forthun and Millie Ferrer-Chancy with assistance from the Legal Aid Foundation, and published by the UF Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences. Revised December 2015.
Many teens exhibit risk-taking behavior. That said, the past experiences of foster care youth in particular make them likely to engage in activity that could cause teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This 9-page fact sheet is designed to provide kin and foster caregivers, caseworkers, and biological parents of children in foster care with information about the physical, emotional, and psychological concerns related to teen reproductive health in the foster care system. It also aims to help all involved identify the risk factors associated with foster teen pregnancy and explains legal rights regarding foster teen health. Written by Nora Del Giudice, Stephanie C. Toelle, David C. Diehl, and Jody S. Nicholson, and published by the UF Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, May 2016.
School gardens have been popping up like little pea plants in schools all over Florida. Not only are they an excellent way to get fresh produce into classrooms and cafeterias, but they also provide students with a living classroom where concepts related to science, math, agriculture, and nutrition can be learned and applied. This 4-page fact sheet discusses the benefits of school gardens to children and teachers, different types of school gardens, and points to consider while planning. Written by Kohrine Counts and Karla P. Shelnutt, and published by the UF Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, February 2016.
Early childhood is a crucial period for the physical and cognitive development of children. Most people who care for young children realize that children benefit from playing outside, but caretakers might not have ready access to the literature that supports their observations. This 4-page fact sheet written by Kristen Poppell and Martha C. Monroe and published by the School of Forest Resources and Conservation reviews some of the literature that shows that young children need to go outside and be around nature regularly. It describes some of the benefits children (and adults!) gain from learning and playing outdoors and includes suggestions for several resources for parents, teachers, and caretakers who hope to increase these opportunities for their youngsters.
Effective teaching involves careful consideration and planning. There are several different principles that can be used to guide teachers in planning their lessons. This two-page fact sheet provides information on how to organize and structure subject matter, motivate students, effectively use reward and reinforcement, and other techniques for instruction. Written by R. Kirby Barrick and Andrew C. Thoron, and published by the Agricultural Education and Communication Department.
Student achievement can clearly be enhanced through effective teaching behaviors, but what kinds of teacher behaviors lead to higher achievement among learners? This six-page fact sheet describes five different teacher behaviors that can lead to higher student achievement. These behaviors are clarity, variability, Enthusiasm, task oriented and/or businesslike behavior, and student opportunity to learn criterion material. Written by R. Kirby Barrick and Andrew C. Thoron, and published by the Agricultural Education and Communication Department.
Teachers of all subjects must familiarize themselves with the specific needs of the students in their classrooms, especially in the case of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Asperger’s syndrome because students may vary greatly in the degree to which they are affected by these disabilities. This four-page fact sheet explains the differences between autism and Asperger’s syndrome and how instructors can modify their lessons to effectively meet the needs of learners with these disabilities in different types of learning environments and achieve greater classroom success for the educator and the learner. Written by Sara E. LaRose and Andrew C. Thoron, and published by the Agricultural Education and Communication Department.
School gardens are a great way to get youth interested in where their food comes from. Hydroponics, or the cultivation of plants in liquid nutrient solutions rather than in soil, is a fascinating way to teach students about food systems. This 4-page fact sheet lists the materials, tools, and construction steps needed to grow a variety of crops in a wading pool hydroponic garden. Written by Edmund L. Thralls, and published by the UF Department of Environmental Horticulture, October 2015.
Tell me and I forget,
Teach me and I may remember,
Involve me and I learn.
The general goal of healthy parenting and teaching is to produce children and students who can think critically, make good decisions, and become independent, accountable, responsible, and contributing members of society. Part 3 of this Positive Discipline: Behavioral Management Skills for Parents and Teachers series covers tips and strategies to help parents and teachers build critical thinking and positive behavioral skills in children. Several of these strategies that can help parents and teachers achieve these goals through “love and logic” are discussed in this 6-page fact sheet written by Victor Harris, Whitney Fung, Sarah Ellis, and Alison Schmeer, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, July 2015. (Photo Credit: Thinkstock.com/iStock/natasaadzic)
When a child is locked in the bathroom
With water running
And he says he is doing nothing
But the dog is barking,
Research indicates that there must be at least an 8-to-1 positive-to-negative interaction ratio for parents and teachers to have a positive relationship with their children and students. Put simply, both verbal and non-verbal communication needs to be generally positive. Learning how to steer a child or a student toward managing his or her own behavior in healthy ways requires both knowledge and skills that make it easy to have positive interactions and behavior change. This 6-page fact sheet will help you identify specific approaches to successfully managing appropriate and inappropriate behavior at home and in the classroom. It outlines four principles of behavior management, and describes several strategies before providing a practice activity. Written by Victor Harris, Whitney Fung, Sarah Ellis, and Alison Schmeer, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, July 2015. (Photo Credit: Thinkstock.com/Jupiterimages/Creatas Images)
“Before I got married I had six theories about bringing up children; now I have six children, and no theories.” — John Wilmot
Parents and teachers often experience a lot of insecurities, especially with regard to helping children manage their own behaviors. Not surprisingly, there are many similarities in the skills that effective parents and teachers use to help children manage their own behavior successfully. Building a foundation for healthy and effective parenting and teaching begins with understanding some different types of misbehaviors. This 4-page fact sheet discusses four common types of misbehaviors, encourages the reader to identify healthy and unhealthy practices, and continues with key factors of effective parenting and teaching. Written by Victor Harris, Whitney Fung, Sarah Ellis, and Alison Schmeer, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, July 2015. (Photo credit: Thinkstock.com/iStock)
Florida 4-H programs offered to children ages 5 to 7 are called 4-H Cloverbud programs and are a component of the Florida 4-H Youth Development Program. The goal of the Florida 4-H Cloverbud program is to offer age-appropriate, fun, and exploratory learning experiences for children in the 5 to 7 age group. This 5-page fact sheet describes the best management practices 4-H faculty and volunteers should use when teaching and interacting with this age group. Written by Amanda Squitieri and Sarah Hensley, and published by the UF Department of 4-H Youth Development, July 2015.
Usually considered an enrichment project for classrooms, the 4-H Embryology Project can also be modified for club or individual use. In it, young people use an incubator to grow avian embryos (inside fertile eggs) through the hatching process. Students learn basic biology and life science while they eagerly look forward to hatching chicks. This 5-page fact sheet describes the necessary equipment and other resources and provides tips and suggestions to increase the hatchability of fertile avian eggs. Written by Marcus Boston, Chris Decubellis, and Judith Levings, and published by the UF Department of 4-H Youth Development, April 2015. (Photo: Marcus Boston, UF/IFAS)
Over the past 15 years, unhealthy weight-loss behaviors among U.S. adolescents are becoming more widespread. This 5-page fact sheet addresses the consequences and risks associated with risky weight-control practices and discusses the prevalence of eating disorders and the role of body image in weight practices. The publication also provides references that can be used to help practitioners educate youth on the importance of setting realistic goals and enhancing body satisfaction. Written by Emily Johnson and Kate Fogarty, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, September 2014. (AP Photo/University of Florida/IFAS/Josh Wickham)