Marking First Thinnings in Pine Plantations: Potential for Increased Economic Returns

Pine trees, North Florida, Forest. UF/IFAS Photo: Thomas Wright.

This 3-page fact sheet written by Byron Love, Michael Andreu, and Chris Demers and published by the UF/IFAS School of Forest Resources and Conservation summarizes a study to determine whether landowners may gain increased economic returns if they mark the first thinning in a southern pine stand. The study found that marking can indeed bring higher revenue at final harvest. The greater number of high-quality and faster-growing trees remaining after a marked thinning is the main reason for immediate and future increases in value.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr410

Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants in North Florida Forests

figure 1 Chinese tallow

Of the more than 4,000 known plant species growing in Florida, approximately 30% are not native to Florida or the Southeast, and in the US invasive exotic species cost an estimated $120 billion each year in damages. Early detection and removal of invasive plants is the key to successful management. This publication describes many of the current methods used in north Florida forest operations to manage invasive exotic plants. It also provides references for additional sources of information. Written by Chris Demers, Patrick Minogue, Michael Andreu, Alan Long, and Rick Williams.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr133

Key to Common Bay Trees of Florida

Figure 3.  Although evergreen, some of the leaves on Gordonia lasianthus will turn red in the fall and winter before dropping off. Credit: Lynn ProenzaBay trees in Florida can be difficult to distinguish because their leaves all look alike at first glance. The leaves of bays are all simple, large, elliptical, and evergreen. In addition, several bay species grow in overlapping ranges and habitats. Many times two or more different species of bay will be found growing right next to one other. This 7-page fact sheet includes a dichotomous key to help in the identification of common bay trees found in Florida. A basic description and photos of each species help with the identification process. Written by Lynn Proenza and Michael Andreu, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, September 2013.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr379

The Green Value of Your Woods: A Summary of Ecosystem Services Provided by Forest Stewardship Lands in Florida

Keywords: Forest Resources and Conservation, natural resources, pine forest, north Florida, tree. Photo by Eric ZamoraLands enrolled in voluntary forest management and conservation programs, like the Forest Stewardship Program, promote good land management practices. In addition to benefiting the landowners enrolled in these programs, good land management provides ecosystem services to society. The Stewardship Ecosystem Services Survey calculated the physical and economic benefits of water resource protection, carbon sequestration and storage, timber production, and wildlife conservation. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Rose Godfrey, Chris Demers, Francisco Escobedo, Damian Adams, and Michael Andreu, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, September 2013.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr381

Thinning Southern Pines – A Key to Greater Returns

row pines, trees, forest, agronomy. UF/IFAS Photo: Josh Wickham.Thinning is an important silvicultural practice that redistributes the growth potential of the site to the best trees. Diameter growth rates are maintained or increased on residual trees after thinning, which increases the return on investment from higher-value trees. Biologically, thinning accelerates stand development by favoring the tallest, best-formed trees over those that are diseased, overtopped, crooked, forked, or otherwise undesirable and likely to die on their own if left in the stand long enough. In addition, thinning provides periodic income, improves access for equipment, recreation and hunting, and creates a generally healthier stand. Thinning is also beneficial for wildlife, especially when combined with prescribed fire or herbicide use to control competing vegetation. By allowing more light to reach the forest floor, thinning promotes growth of plants important as food and/or cover for wildlife species. Landowners are encouraged to consult with or hire a professional forester to assist with thinning and other forest management activities. This 6-page fact sheet was written by Chris Demers, Michael Andreu, Babe McGowan, Alan Long, and Jarek Nowak, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, June 2013.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr159

Common Woody Plants of Florida Scrub Ecosystems (FOR305/FR373)

Figure 1. An example of a Florida scrub ecosystem. Credit: Lynn ProenzaThe purpose of this fact sheet is to help identify a few of the more common woody plant species found in Florida’s scrub ecosystems. In the individual plant descriptions, words that appear in bold font are considered to be key field characteristics that will aid in identification of the species. This 14-page fact sheet was written by Lynn Proenza and Michael Andreu, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, October 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr373

Key to Nine Common Smilax Species of Florida (FOR307/FR375)

Figure 5. The glaucous coating on the lower surface of the leaf on Smilax glauca is an excellent distinguishing characteristic for this species.Identifying species found in Smilax the genus can be difficult because species resemble one another closely. One must be careful to use detailed descriptions in order to correctly identify a specimen. Smilax species are important because they can provide shelter and food for wildlife and have provided humans with medicine, food, and dyes. Twelve Smilax species are found in Florida. This 8-page fact sheet covers the nine more common species that one may encounter in the state. Written by Lynn Proenza and Michael Andreu, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, January 2013.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr375

Pyrus communis, Common Pear (FOR293/FR361)

Figure 1. Common pear (Pyrus communis)The showy flowers and manageable height of common pear makes it a favorable ornamental landscape tree. Some find the aromatic flowers and sweet edible fruits to be an additional plus; however, a pollinator specimen must be nearby in order for the female tree to produce fruit. Careful consideration should be taken when choosing a planting location, since the soft fruits can be messy if not harvested. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr361

Casuarina equisetifolia, Australian Pine (FOR298/FR366)

Figure 1. Australian Pine (Casuarina equisetfolia)Australian pine was originally planted in Florida in the late 1800’s as a windbreak and for shade. But soon thereafter it was spreading without help from humans. Today it is considered a category I invasive species in Florida, and the Division of Plant Industry strictly prohibits possessing, transporting, and cultivating this species. For those who find this tree in close proximity to their home, it’s a good idea to replace it since Australian pine is known to have a very low resistance to wind. Australian pine is commonly found growing on coastal shorelines since it thrives in salty, sandy environments. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr366

Tabebuia serratifolia, Yellow Trumpet Tree (FOR303/FR371)

Figure 1. Tabebuia serratifolia, Yellow Trumpet TreeThis deciduous tree is native to South and Central America is commonly planted in Florida as an ornamental landscape and shade tree. It has attractive bright, yellow blossoms produced in the absence of leaves. Once established, this tree is drought tolerant, making it easier to care for and less demanding on water resources. Yellow trumpet tree also has a relatively high tolerance to salt spray, and therefore is an appropriate street tree or yard specimen in coastal areas.This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr371

Hippomane mancinella, Manchineel (FOR302/FR370)

Figure 1. All portions of the manchineel tree are poisonous.This poisonous tree is native to southern Florida, the Keys, many of the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America. Though it is poisonous to humans and many animals, iguanas are eat the fruit and sometimes live among the tree’s limbs. It’s found along the seacoasts and in brackish swamps where it grows among mangroves. Each leaf has a small gland where the leaf joins the stem. The bark is reddish-to-grayish brown and cracked looking. Flowers inconspicuous, but the spikes or leafless stems that the flowers emerge from are visible. The fruit is bright-green and looks like a small apple. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu and Melissa H. Friedman, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr370

Fortunella spp., Kumquat (FOR300/FR368)

Figure 1. Kumquat (Fortunella spp.)Many people find kumquat trees attractive and useful yard specimens. Their dark green leaves and contrasting bright orange fruits give them ornamental quality, and their relatively small size makes them easy to care for once they’re established. Because kumquats generally require less care than other citrus trees, they may be a good choice for gardeners with less time or experience, but who still desire an attractive and tasty citrus tree. If space is an issue, kumquats also do well in containers as long as they receive proper sunlight and watering. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr368

Gleditsia aquatica, Water Locust (FOR301/FR369)

Figure 1. Water Locust (Gleditsia aquatica), Tosohatchee Wildlife Management Area, Orange County, FL, July 2012Water locust’s wide, spreading root system and affinity for hydric conditions makes it a useful specimen for erosion control on wet banks of freshwater systems. While not widely available, planting this tree in residential yards or other public locations may be less than ideal, since the long and sharply pointed thorns on the main trunk and branches can be hazardous. This deciduous tree is native to Florida. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr369

Cassia afrofistula, Kenyan Cassia (FOR296/FR364)

Figure 1. Detail of Cassia afrofistula (Kenyan Cassia)The Kenyan cassia can be used as a showy ornamental tree or shrub, with its dark foliage and bright yellow flowers. Some people find the seed pods to be unattractive and prune the tree after it flowers to prevent pods from developing. This tree tolerates a wide range of soil types and can be used in a garden, park, patio, or streetscape setting. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr364

Leucaena leucocephala, White Leadtree (FOR299/FR367)

Figure 1. White leadtree (Leucaena leucocephala)In Florida, white leadtree is a prohibited species and therefore is not used in commercial applications in the state. However, in its native range it is used as a source of charcoal, fuel, and lumber. It has also been planted as a windbreak for crops such as coffee and cocoa, and some ranchers use the tree as a source of both shade and forage for cattle, with the pods being an excellent source of protein. In addition, as white leadtree forms a well-developed taproot, it has been planted to assist with erosion control. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr367

Callistemon salignus, White Bottlebrush (FOR292/FR360)

Figure 1. Callistemon salignus, White BottlebrushNative to Australia, this evergreen tree has use as an ornamental tree that produces moderate shade along a street, median, or yard. The unique flowering structure is eye-catching and it can be pruned for use as a decorative hedge. Its tolerance of many different soil types and droughty conditions makes it easy to care for after it’s been established. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael Andreu, Melissa Friedman, Robert Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr360

Cassia grandis, Pink Shower (FOR294/FR362)

Figure 1. Detail of Cassia grandis L.f. blossoms and budsThe name “pink shower” comes from the bright pink blossoms that this tree produces. It is sometimes called “stinking tree” because the pulp in its pods has a very strong smell. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr362

Cassia leptophylla, Gold Medallion Tree (FOR295/FR363)

Figure 1. Gold medallion tree (Cassia leptophylla) in bloomThe gold medallion tree is planted primarily as a shade tree or as a decorative specimen for the yard or street. Many people like this tree because of its fast growth rate and showy, bright yellow clusters of flowers that bloom in the summer months. This tree loses its leaves for a very short period each year, but leaves are quickly replaced. Pruning the tree to one main leading stem from which major branches are attached can help increase its strength and sturdiness against strong wind events. The golden medallion tree is also naturally pest resistant, and as long as it is grown in areas where the temperature does not drop below freezing, it is an easy tree to care for. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr363

Cassia javanica, Pink and White Shower (FOR297/FR365)

Figure 1. Clustering flowers of Cassia javanica (Pink and White Shower)Cassia javanica is planted primarily as a decorative shade tree. Many people consider pink and white shower to be aesthetically pleasing because of its pink and white blooms that emerge during the summer months. Because its leafless season is so short, it can be a good shade tree throughout the year. Its rapid growth rate makes it an ideal tree for homeowners looking to increase their tree cover. And its natural resistance to pests increases its desirability as a landscape tree that is commonly used as an ornamental street tree. This 2-page fact sheet was written by Michael G. Andreu, Melissa H. Friedman, and Robert J. Northrop, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, July 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr365

Sorting out the Florida Sabal Palms (FOR289/FR357)

Figure 3.  Sabal etonia, scrub palmetto, at Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA While traveling through the Florida peninsula, a casual observer will notice a wide variety of palms and find that many are called “palmetto.” This 4-page fact sheet helps field investigators identify the four Sabal species found in Florida's natural areas, first by distinguishing them from other fan palms and then from each other. Written by David A. Fox and Michael G. Andreu, and published by the UF Department of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, March 2012.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr357